THE ANIMAL KINGDOM Chapter 2 – Study Guide Animals without a backbone are called invertebrates. The largest animal group is made up of the invertebrates. A sponge is the simplest kind of invertebrate, and its body does not have symmetry. Animals with a backbone are vertebrates. Amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals are all different examples of vertebrates. Animals, such as snakes, that warm their bodies in the sun are called coldblooded. The job of the muscular system is to move a body’s bones. The nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs. The five senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell) are all part of the nervous system. A life cycle is an organism’s birth, growth, reproduction, and death. A life span is how long an organism is expected to live. Animals that have hollow bones and are warm-blooded vertebrates are called birds. An endoskeleton is an internal supporting structure. An amphibian is an example of a vertebrate. A shark is an example of a cartilaginous fish. The respiratory system helps to put oxygen in blood cells and remove waste gas. A sea star reproduces through regeneration. A jellyfish is an example of a cnidarians. Animals are divided into two main groups – vertebrates or invertebrates. If a vertebrate’s muscular system stopped working it would no longer be able to use its bones or move its body parts. The animal would die. The five stages of a butterfly’s complete metamorphosis are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) They lay eggs Eggs hatches into larva Larva eats Larva forms a pupa Adult butterfly hatches The circulatory system moves blood through the body. The penguin reproduces through the development of hatching eggs. An echinoderm is an example of an invertebrate. A shark and a gold fish have a backbone in common. Budding is a process in which an animal reproduces by growing offspring on its body that later break off. If a vertebrate animal’s digestive system stopped working it would no long be able to digest food for energy and it would die.