Ionic Bonding

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
Name ________________
Ionic Bonding
Ionic bonding occurs when a metal transfers one or more electrons to a non-metal in an
effort to fill its outer shell (the so called “octet rule”). Atoms with a high electonegativity
will become electron acceptors and atoms with a low electronegativity will be come
electron donors. We can depict the formation of sodium chloride (table salt) as such.
Notice that the result is two atoms held together by unlike charges (like magnets).
Na

Cl



 Na Cl
If we are to show the formation of an ion like Calcium Chloride it works a little different.
Calcium needs to get rid of two electrons to get to a full shell, and Chlorine can only take
one. At this point we need to two chlorines to act as electron acceptors. In order to
make full shells you can always add more atoms if your need to.
Cl
 Ca

Cl 
 Ca Cl2
Show the transfer of electrons for the following ionic bonds.
1. K + F
2. Mg+ I
3. Be + S
4. Na + O
5. Al + Br
2

Name ________________
Covalent Bonding
A covalent bond occurs between tow or more not metals trying to obtain full outer
shells of electrons (stable octets). There is little difference in electronegativity
between most non-metals. As a result, there is no transfer of electrons. Instead atoms
are force to share electrons in order to get their full shells.
H

Cl

 H
Cl
Diagram the covalent bonds that result from the following groups of atoms. Notice
sometimes you will be bonding together more than two atoms. Make sure to draw
each atom first with its dot structure to show how many valence electrons it has.
6. F + F

7. O + O
8. N + N
9. C + O + O
10.
H+H+O
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