Chapter One review: Matter

Chem. I Review
Chapter 1 Matter
Chemistry: is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of
Fields of Chemistry:
Organic chemistry—the study of most carbon- containing compounds
Inorganic chemistry—the study of non-organic substances, many of which
have organic fragments bonded to metals (organometallics)
Physical chemistry—the study of the properties and changes of matter and
their relation to energy
Analytical chemistry—the identification of the components and composition
of materials
Biochemistry—the study of substances and processes occurring in living
Theoretical chemistry—the use of mathematics and computers to
understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design
and predict the properties of new compounds
Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass.
Mass: the amount of matter in an object. On Earth: weight.
Substance: Matter of a uniform and definite composition.
Physical properties: The quality or condition of a substance that can be
observed without changing the substance’s composition. Eg. Color, odor,
freezing point, boiling point etc.
States of matter:
Solid: definite shape, definite volume
Liquid: indefinite shape, definite volume
Gas: indefinite shape, indefinite volume
Physical change: changes that do not alter the physical properties of a
Chemical change: changes that alter the physical properties of a substance.
Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present.
Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present.
Mixture: a blend of two or more substances
Heterogeneous- non-uniform
Homogeneous- uniform
Solution- a chemical term for a homogeneous mixture
Phase- any part of a system with uniform composition.
Separating mixtures:
Heterogeneous mixture:
Physical- “pick it out”
Homogeneous mixture:
Elements: The simplest form of a substance, cannot be broken down into a
simpler substance.
Compound: A mixture of two or more elements. It can be broken down
chemically into smaller substances.
Chemical Reaction: one or more substances change into new substances.
Reactants are the starting substance
Products are the end product
Chemical property: The ability of a chemical to undergo a chemical reaction
to form a new substance.
Reading the periodic table:
Atomic number
Atomic Mass
Types of Elements:
Metals: malleable, ductile, luster, conductor
Non Metals: brittle, low boiling point, poor conductors, no luster
Metalloids: both metal and nonmetal qualities
Noble Gases: non-reactive