First Day of School

First Day of School
1. Seating Arrangements - Assigned seats.
2. Introduction - ME, little about the class, and
then THEM.
3. Syllabus - Pass out and explain.
4. Classroom Behavior Sheet - Pass out and
5. Textbooks - Pass out and record numbers.
6. Lab Safety Contract - Pass out, explain,
sign, and return.
Chapter 1: Matter and Change
*Note - Lab safety and equipment will be tested
with this chapter!
I. Lab Safety and Equipment.
A. Lab safety has been discussed already.
B. Lab equipment-students are responsible for
all lab equipment on handout that was given
out. (utility clamp, iron ring, buret clamp, clay
triangle, wire gauze, burner, ring stand, triple
beam balance, electronic balance, pipet, buret,
forceps, triangular file, test tube brush, striker,
test tube rack, test tube, beaker, funnel,
volumetric flask, Erlenmeyer flask, wash bottle,
graduated cylinder, test tube holder, watch
glass, evaporating dish, crucible and cover,
rubber stoppers, safety goggles, crucible tongs,
and beaker tongs.)
C. Students will not be able to participate in
lab until a lab quiz is passed
II. Chemistry Is a Physical Science
A. Chemistry - The study of the composition,
structure, and properties of matter, the
processes that matter undergoes, and the
energy changes accompany these
There are many different branches of
Chemistry. We break things down into 6
different branches, which sometimes
1. Organic Chemistry - Study of most
carbon containing compounds.
2. Inorganic Chemistry - Study of all
substances not classified as organic, mainly
compounds that do not contain carbon.
3. Physical Chemistry - Study of the
properties and changes of matter and their
relationship to energy.
4. Analytical Chemistry - Identification
of the components and the composition of
5. Biochemistry - Study of substances
and processes occurring in living things.
6. Theoretical Chemistry - Use of math
and computers to understand the principles
behind observed chemical behavior and to
design and predict the properties of new
7. Chemists work with chemicals. A
chemical is any substance that has a
definite composition, for example: water,
CO2, and glucose.
C. Chemistry is also used in research and
1. Basic Research - conducted for the
sake of knowledge only and not to meet
practical goals. (We will use basic research
in lab.)
2. Applied Research - conducted to solve
problems or fulfill specific needs. (For
example: O3 layer damage, pharmaceutical
3. Technological Development production and use of products that
improve our quality of life. (For example:
computers, catalytic converters, and
biodegradable materials.)
III. Matter and Its Properties
What is matter?
1. Matter - anything that has mass and
takes up space.
2. Mass - measure of the amount of
matter. Measured using a balance.
B. Building Blocks of Matter
1. The fundamental building blocks of
matter are atoms. An atom is the
smallest unit of an element that
maintains the properties of that element.
2. An element is a pure substance made
only of one kind of atom.
3. A compound is a substance that is
made from the atoms of two or more
elements that are chemically bonded.
C. Properties and Changes in Matter:
1. A physical property is a characteristic
that can be observed or measured without
changing the identity of the substance.
(For example: melting point and boiling
2. A physical change is one that does not
involve a change in the identity of the
substance. (For example: phase changes,
grinding, and cutting.)
3. 4 states of matter:
a. solid - definite volume and shape.
(Ex. Ice)
b. liquid - definite volume, no definite
shape. (Ex. Water)
c. gas - no definite volume, no definite
shape. (Ex. Water vapor)
d. plasma – high temperature physical
state of matter in which atoms lose
most of their electrons. This is not
the same as the plasma in your blood.
(Ex. Sun, fluorescent bulbs, lightning)
4. A chemical property relates to a
substance’s ability to undergo changes that
transform it into different substances. (For
example: flammability, reactivity, ability to
5. A chemical change is a change in
which one or more substances are
converted into different substances, this is
also called a chemical reaction. (For
example: burning, rusting, tarnishing.)
6. The substances that react in a chemical
change are called reactants. The
substances that are formed by the
chemical change are called products.
7. When physical and chemical changes
take place energy is involved. It is
absorbed and released, but NEVER
created nor destroyed. This is the Law
of Conservation of Energy.
IV. Classification of Matter:
A. Matter can be classified using a flow chart.
Before we can construct this flow chart, we
have to define several terms.
1. Mixture - a blend of two or more kinds of
matter, each of which retains its own identity
and properties. There are two types.
a. Homogeneous Mixture - uniform in
composition. You cannot tell the
difference between the different parts.
Also called solutions.
b. Heterogeneous Mixture - not
uniform throughout. You can tell the
difference between the different parts.
2. Pure Substance - has a fixed
composition and differs from a mixture in
two ways:
a. Every sample of a pure substance has
exactly the same characteristic
b. Every sample of a pure substance has
exactly the same composition.
c. Pure substances can be either
elements or compounds.
3. Complete flow chart for matter
B. All lab chemicals have a degree of impurity.
We have to assume that they do not. The
impurity of each chemical is listed on the
V. Elements.
A. Introduction to the Periodic Table
1. Symbols are often based on the English
names of the elements.
2. Some are derived from the elements
come from older names, usually Latin.
See Table 2 on page 16.
3. Family(Group): vertical columns of
elements. Contain elements with similar
chemical properties. For example, the
Noble Gases are in group 8A. They are
generally unreactive. All are gases at
room temperature.
4. Periods: horizontal rows of elements.
B. There are three types of elements.
1. Metal - an element that is a good
conductor of heat and electricity. Most are
solids at room temperature.
2. Nonmetal - an element that is a poor
conductor of heat and electricity. Many
are gases at room temperature.
3. Metalloid (Semimetal) - an element
that has some characteristics of metals
and some characteristics of nonmetals.
All are solids at room temperature.