Chapter 1 Matter and Change

Chapter 1
Matter and Change
Laura Peck
Pre-AP chemistry
Dickson County High School
Accompanies: Holt Modern Chemistry Text
●The science of chemistry
●Matter and its Properties
Chemistry is a Physical
●Chemistry: is the study of the
composition, structure, and properties of
matter, the processes that matter
undergoes, and the energy changes that
accompany these processes.
Six Branches of Chemistry
●1. Organic: studies carbon molecules created
by life. (Petroleum, Plastics, biofuels, etc)
●2. Inorganic: studies non-organic molecules.
(organometallics, metal alloys, ion batteries,
glass, etc)
●3. Physical: The study of the properties and
changes of matter and their relation to energy
(plasma TVs, energy production, etc)
Six Branches cont…….
●4. Analytical: the identification of the components and
composition of materials. (blood testing, water
analysis, pollution, EPA, etc)
●5. Biochemistry: the study of substances and
processes occurring in living things. (Medical,
pharmaceuticals, treatments, allergies, etc)
●6. Theoretical: the use of mathematics and computers
to understand the principles behind observed chemical
behavior and to design and predict the properties of
new compounds. (everything above)
3 Types of Research
●1. Basic Research: carried out for the sake of
increasing knowledge. (NASA, HUBBLE, etc)
●2. Applied Research: Generally carried out to
solve a problem (developing new drugs.. Etc)
●3. Technological Development: involves the
production and use of products that improve
our quality of life. (iPads, iPhones, Droids, etc..)
Matter and Its Properties
●Atom: smallest unit of an element that maintains the
chemical identity of that element.
●Mass: measure of the amount of matter.
●Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space.
●Element: a pure substance that cannot be broken
down into simpler, stable substances and is made of
one type of atom.
●Compound: substance that can be broken down into
simpler stable substances. Made from the atoms of
Properties and Changes in
●Extensive properties: depend on the amount of
matter that is present. (volume, mass, etc)
●Intensive properties: do not depend on the amount
of matter present. (melting point, boiling point, etc)
●Physical Property: characteristic that can be
observed or measured without changing the identity of
the substance. (melting, boiling, etc)
oPhysical Change: change that does not involve a
change in the identity of the substance. (cutting,
melting, etc)
Change of state: physical change from
one state
definite to
definite shape
●Liquid: definite volume indefinite
●Gas: neither definite volume nor
●Plasma: high-temperature state where
most atoms lose their electrons.
Chemical Properties and
Chemical Changes
●Chemical properties is the substance’s ability
to change into another substance.
H 2O
●Chemical Change ( ) or Reaction is when
substances are converted into other
oReactants: the ‘ingredients’ – wood, oxygen & heat
Energy and Changes in Matter
●Enthalpy is the amount of energy released
or absorbed during a chemical or physical
change (. )
oTo melt from Ice to liquid, the H2O must absorb
energy from the environment.
oTo freeze from liquid to ice, the H2O must release
energy to the environment.
o(energy levels) solid<liquid<gas<plasma
oThe Law of Conservation of Energy dictates that
energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
Classification of Matter
●Mixtures are made from 2 or
more substances that retain their
o Homogeneous = same throughout
o Heterogeneous = not uniform
●Pure Substance has fixed
composition and the same
characteristic properties
o Compound = 2 or more elements
chemically bonded together
Laboratory Chemicals and Purity
●Grades of Purity, but none are 100% pure
Return a reagent back
To the original bottle.
This will contaminate
The purity of your
Master reagent!
Primary Standard Reagents highest
ACS (American Chemical Society
Specified reagents)
USP (U.S. Pharmacopoeia standard)
CP (Chemically Pure)
NF (National Formulary specifications)
FCC (Food Chemical Code specifications)
Technical (industrial chemicals) lowest
●Groups/families: vertical columns
oSimilar chemical properties
●Periods: horizontal rows
oPhysical/chemical properties change regularly
Types of Elements
●Metals: an element that is a good
electrical conductor and heat conductor.
Properties: most are solid
at room Temperature,
malleability, ductile,
Tensile strength, luster.
Discuss the differences
Copper and mercury.
●Nonmetals: poor conductors of heat and
oMany are gases at room temperature.
Bromine is a liquid. Carbon, Phosphorous,
selenium, sulfur and iodine are solids.
oTend to be brittle.
●Metalloids: Has some characteristics
of metals and some characteristics of
oSolid at room temperature, less malleable,
semiconductors, some have luster.
Which metalloid is
Essential for our
What State has a
Valley named
●Noble Gases: Part of the nonmetals,
these elements are gases at room
oGenerally unreactive with other elements
Which noble gas is
Close to ‘running out’
In commercial
Discuss why its
production Is limited
by radioactive