Plant and Animal Cells All plants and animals, dead or alive, are composed of cells. Cells are the building blocks of nature. All animal cells have certain structures, called organelles that identify the cell as an animal cell. The same is true of plant cells. Even though plant and animal cells are different, they do have many similar cell structures (organelles). The following table identifies organelles, classifies them as either plant or animal or both, provides a description of the organelle and a study section. This study method is designed to help you remember the parts of a cell by relating them to your own body. The highlighted portion of the note indicates organelles that are visible using a light microscope. Name Description Nucleus -circular shaped inner organelle Animal Plant -control centre of the cell -directs cell activities and contains the genetic material for reproduction Chromosomes -strands of material found -construction plans for the cell and in the nucleus genetic information to reproduce X X X X Cell membrane -controls the movement of material into and out of the cell X X -allows materials to be transported between cell structures -stores waste before disposal -storage area for nutrients and water -is larger in plant cells than in animal cells --protects and supports the plant cell -allows some gases, water and minerals to pass through it -produces food using light from the sun X X -veins and arteries of the circulatory system X X -digestive system X -skeletal system and clothes of a person X -hands putting food into a mouth Cytoplasm Vacuole -outside membrane of an animal cell -found next to the cell wall in a plat cell -watery fluid contained inside of the cell membrane -oval inner organelle of plant and animal cells Cell Wall -exterior membrane of a plant cell Chloroplasts -inner green oval shaped organelle Function Study method Relation to body -functions like the brain -performs the same task as the reproductive system of the human body -skin Mitochondria -cylindrical organelle Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes -series of folded membranes in the cell -tiny circular organelles attached to the endoplasmic reticulum -folded membranes inside the cytoplasm Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes -small sacs inside the cytoplasm -provides the cell with energy through the process of respiration -carries materials through the cell X X -lungs X X -small intestine -clean-up crew -breaks down large proteins to be reused by the cell -protein storage -creates vesicles to carry proteins out of the cell -contain proteins to break down large molecules into smaller molecules -kills and digests invading organisms X X -stomach X X -large intestine X X -white blood cell.