# Study Guide – pages are for 2005 edition of Earth Science Text

```Study Guide – pages are for 2005 edition of Earth Science Text.
Students should have completed these questions in school. Answers will be posted on
Wednesday. Students may look up any unfinished questions using their 2004 edition texts.
(Page numbers are for the 2005 edition.)
1. Using key terms page 453
a. Air pressure: The measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface
(page 449)
b. Atmosphere: The mixture of gases that surround the Earth (page 448.)
c. Troposphere: The lowest layer of the atmosphere that is next to the Earth’s surface
(page 451.)
d. Stratosphere: The atmospheric layer above the troposphere (page 451) in which the
air is very thin.
e. Mesosphere: The mesosphere is the middle layer of the atmosphere above the
stratosphere. It is the coldest layer (page 451.)
f. Thermosphere: The uppermost layer of the atmosphere in which temperature
increases as altitude increases (page 452.)
2. Understanding Key Ideas
a. Question 2: Why does the temperature of different layers vary? B Because of the
composition of gases in each layer.
b. Question 3: Why does air pressure decrease as altitude increases? There is greater
air pressure near the surface of the Earth because there is more air above the
surface pushing down. As you move further from the Earth’s surface, there are fewer
air molecules above, and the density of the air decreases.
c. Question 4: How can the thermosphere have high temperatures but not feel hot?
Though the thermosphere has high temperature, it does not feel hot. Temperature is
a measure of the energy of particles. Heat is generated when particles touch one
another. Particles in the thermosphere are so far apart they don’t transfer much
energy to one another.
d. Question 5: What determines the temperature of atmospheric layers? The
temperature of atmospheric layers is determined by the transfer of energy by contact
of particles with one another.
e. Question 6: What two gases make up most of the atmosphere? Nitrogen and
Oxygen.
3. CRITICAL THINKING page 453
a. Question 8: Apply what you know about the relationship between altitude and air
pressure to explain why rescue helicopters have a difficult time flying at altitudes
above 6,000 m?
4. Using Key Terms page 457
a. Thermal conduction: It is the transfer of thermal energy (heat) through a material,
and always goes from warm to cold areas (page 455.)
b. Radiation: It is the transfer of the sun’s electromagnetic waves through the
atmosphere (page 454.)
c. Convection: The transfer of thermal energy (heat) by the circulation or movement in
a liquid or gas (page 455.)
d. Greenhouse effect: it is the process by which gases in the atmosphere, such as
water vapor and carbon dioxide, absorb thermal energy and radiate it back to Earth.
e. Global warming: This refers to an increase in global temperatures (page 456-7.)
5. Understanding Key ideas page 457
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Study Guide – pages are for 2005 edition of Earth Science Text.
a. Question 2: Which of the following is the best example of thermal conduction? B an
egg cooking in a frying pan
b. Question 4: What is the difference between the greenhouse effect and global
warming. The greenhouse effect could result in the prevention of thermal energy
release in contrast with global warming which is the increase in global temperatures.
The greenhouse effect might be causative of global warming.
6. Using key terms page 463
a. Wind: The movement of air caused by differences in air pressure causes wind (page
458.) The greater the air pressure difference, the faster the wind.
b. Coriolis effect: The apparent curvature in the path of global winds and ocean
currents due to the rotation of the Earth on its axis. It causes winds in the Northern
Hemisphere to curve toward the east. The opposite occurs in the Southern
Hemisphere.
c. Jet stream: Narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and
lower stratosphere. The friction of air is decreased in this area.
d. Polar easterlies: The wind belts that extend from the poles to 60 degrees latitude in
both hemispheres. Polar easterlies carry cold arctic air over the US in the Northern
Hemisphere.
e. Westerlies: Winds in the 30 to 60 degree latitude region (north and south) are called
westerlies. They flow toward the poles from west to east.
f. Trade winds: Winds that blow from 30 degrees to the Equator in both hemispheres
curve to the west in the Northern, and the east in the Southern Hemisphere.
7. Understanding Key Ideas page 463
a. Question 2: Why does warm air rise and cold air sink? A.
b. Question 3: What are pressure belts? These are found every 30 degrees latitude and
form circular convection cells. The pressure belts are bands of high pressure and
low pressure found every 30 degrees – see map on page 459.
c. Question 4: What causes winds? Air pressure differences causes winds.
d. Question 5 How does the Coriolis effect affect wind movement? The path of winds
shifts because of the rotation of the Earth on its axis.
e. Question 6: How are sea and land breezes similar to mountain and valley breezes?
f. Question 7: Would there be winds if the Earth’s surface were the same temperature
everywhere? Explain.
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