Chapter 24.3 Solar Energy and Winds Solar Energy When solar energy reaches the atmosphere: Reflected back – 30% Absorbed by atmosphere-20% Absorbed by earth – 50% Greenhouse Effect Energy reflected by the earth’s surface is trapped by water vapor and carbon dioxide. How is Energy Transferred Within the Troposphere? Radiation – land and water radiate heat back into the atmosphere. Conduction – heats air in direct contact with the land and water Convection – Currents form when hot air rises and cooler air sinks Wind Caused by differences in air pressure. Air flows from area of high pressure to area of low pressure. Local Winds Wind that blows over a short distance. Daytime-Sea breeze-cool air from water flows toward land Night time-Land breeze-cooler air over land moves toward water. Global Winds Winds that blow over long distances. Convection cells – circulating air patterns. Global Winds Trade winds Westerlies Polar easterlies Coriolis Effect Causes global winds to curve because of the rotation of the earth. Jet Stream A belt of high altitude wind in the upper troposphere.