Study Sheet for Cells Test

Study Sheet for Cells Test
Scientific Method: define a problem, form a hypothesis, gather experimental data, form a conclusion
Robert Hooke (1665)-looked at cork under a microscope and called what he saw CELLS!
Words to Know:
Cell wall: A tough outer covering that surrounds the plasma membrane of bacteria and plant cells.
Cilia: Short projections that cover the surface of some cells and provide for movement.
Cytoplasm: The semi fluid substance of a cell containing organelles and enclosed by the cell membrane.
Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments that provide structure and movement of a cell.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): The genetic material in the nucleus of cells that contains information for an organism's
Endoplasmic reticulum: The network of membranes that extends throughout the cell and is involved in protein synthesis
and lipid metabolism (There is smooth and rough ER; rough has ribosome on outside)
Eukaryote: A cell that contains a distinct nucleus and organelles. YOU= Eukaryote!
Flagellum: A whip like structure that provides for movement in some cells. (Like a tail)
Golgi body: Organelle that sorts, modifies, and packages molecules (Like a post office)
Membrane: A thin, flexible layer of plant or animal tissue that covers, lines, separates or holds together, or connects parts
of an organism.
Mitochondrion: The power-house of the cell that is responsible for turning food into energy.
Nuclear envelope: The double membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
Nucleolus: The darker region inside the nucleus where ribosomal subunits are made.
Nucleus: The control center of a cell that contains the DNA.
Organelle: A membrane-bounded cellular "organ" that performs a specific set of functions within a eukaryotic cell.
(Prokaryotes have NO membrane-bound organelles)
Pili: Short projections that assist bacteria in attaching to tissues. (Hair-like legs)
Plasma membrane: The membrane of a cell.
Prokaryote: A cell without a true nucleus. (Pro means NO…like no nucleus)
Protein: Large molecules that are essential to the structure and functioning of all living cells.
Ribosome: A protein that is made in the Endoplasmic Reticulum and appears all over the cell.
Vacuole: A space-filling organelle of plant cells. (Animals have small vacuoles/Plants have one big vacuole)
Vesicle: A membrane-bound sphere that contains a variety of substances in cells. (Like a package)