Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids Properties of metals include physical ad chemical properties. Physical Properties- A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance. Physical properties of metals: Properties of metals include physical and chemical properties. Physical properties of nonmetals (generally the opposite of metals): Solid non-metals are dull (not shiny) Brittle (not malleable or ductile) Break off- crumble into a powder Most non metals are poor conductors of electricity and heat. Reactive with other elements. 1. 2. 3. 4. Shininess- the visual property of something shining with reflective light; shine. Malleable- Material that can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets and other shapes. Ductile- material that can be pulled or or drawn into long wire. Conductivity- ability of an object to transfer heat from one object to another. Chemical Properties- A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance. 1. 2. Reactivity- the ease and speed with which an element combines, or react with other elements and compounds. Corrosion- if some elements are not protected, they will slowly turn colors or corrode. Metals in the periodic table- reactivity decreases from left to right. Alkali Metals- Group 1. Very reactive. React by losing 1 electron. Found in compounds. Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K). Alkaline Earth Metals- Group 2. Good conductor of electricity. React by losing 2 electrons. Not as reactive as group 1, but more reactive than the other metal groups. Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca). Transition metals- groups 3 to 12. Hard, Shiny and good conductors of electricity. Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Silver (Ag), Gold (Au). Mixed- groups 13 to 15 (not all are metals). Ductile and Malleable. Aluminum (Al), Tin (Sn), Lead (Pb). Lanthanides- group below the main part of the Periodic Table. Soft, malleable, shiny with high conductivity. Many are used to make an alloy (mixture of a metal with another element). Actinides- elements below the lanthanides. Nucleus of these atoms are unstable and break apart easily. Synthetic Elements- After atomic mass # 92, elements are man- made in a laboratory by powerful machines called particle accelerators. Chemical Properties- most nonmetals are reactive so they form compounds. Atoms usually gain or share electrons. Nonmetals in the Periodic Table (Families) Carbon Family- Carbon is the only nonmetal. t can gain, lose or share four electrons when reacting with other elements. Nitrogen Family- Nitrogen and Phosphorous are the two nonmetals in this group which usually gain or share three electrons when reacting with other elements. Nitrogen (chemical symbol N) is an example of a diatomic molecule which consists of two atoms (N2 ) Oxygen Family- Usually gain or share electrons when reacting with other elements. Oxygen is highly reactive, it combines with almost every other element. Halogen Family- halogen means "salt forming." These are very reactive and uncombined with another elements are very dangerous to humans. Noble Gases- do not gain, lose or share electrons. Very Stable and unreactive. Hydrogen- alone in the upper, left corner. The smallest and simplest element. Metalloids- along the border (zigzag line) of metals and nonmetals (have properties of both). All are solid at room temperature, brittle, hard and somewhat reactive. They are able to conduct electricity. Some are used to make semiconductorssubstances that can conduct electricity under some conditions, but not under others.