Matter and its Properties and study guide

Matter Properties and change
Study Guide
Name: ________________
Date: ______________
1. The water cycle Science textbook: pages B48-B49.
Water cycle: The continuous movement of water between Earth’s surface and the air,
changing from liquid to gas to liquid.
Steps of the water cycle:
1. Evaporation: The process in which a liquid changes into a gas (water vapor)
2. Transpiration: The process by which plants release water vapor into the atmosphere through
their leaves.
3. Condensation: The process in which a gas (water vapor) changes into a liquid.
4. Precipitation: Any form of water particles (rain, snow, hail or sleet) that fall from the sky.
5. Groundwater: On land some of the precipitation seeps into the ground and is stored as
6. Runoff: Water that flows downhill.
The main source of water in the water cycle is the oceans.
2. Matter (Chapter 12 in the textbook, lesson 2 and 3).
Matter: Anything that has a mass and occupies space. Matter has 3 states: solid, liquid
and gas.
Mass: The amount of matter in an object. Mass is often measured in kg (kilograms or
Volume: How much space a sample of matter takes up. Volume is often measured in mL
(milliliters: mL).
Weight: The force of gravity between the Earth and an object. The weight is measured
in N (Newtons).
On the moon you would have the same mass, but you would weigh less than on Earth
because the mass of the moon is less than Earth, so the force of gravity between your
body and the moon would be less.
Density: The quantity of matter in an object.
How massive an object is for its size.
It compares an object mass with its volume.
If an object is denser than water, it will sink. If it is lighter than the water
density, it will float.
Matter is made up of atoms.
Atom: Tiny particles that cannot be cut into smaller pieces.
Atoms contain 3 kinds of particles in their center, called the nucleus: Protons (positive
electric charge), neutron (no electric charge) and electrons (negative electric charge)
that move around the nucleus.
Atoms join together to form molecules.Molecule of elements contain only one kid of
Examples: O2 (Oxygen), N2 (Nitrogen).
Element: One kind of atom. Pure substance. Elements cannot be further broken down
into other substances. There are 112 elements.
Examples:Copper, Aluminum, Mercury.
Compounds: 2 or more elements that combine form a compound. Compounds
are made up of molecules that have different kinds of atoms joined together.
Compounds are different from the elements that make them.
Example: H2O (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide)
3. Matter and its properties
 Matter has 2 types of properties: Quantitative and qualitative.
Qualitative properties
(Think L= like/dislikes ----- 5 senses)
Comparison of some properties of solids, liquids and gas:
Types of matter
Definite shape.
Shape does not
Indefinite shape.
Liquids change shape.
Indefinite shape.
Quantitative properties
(Think N= Number)
I can measure them.
 Mass
 Volume
 Temperature
 Density
Definite volume.
The volume in solids
does not change.
It stays the same.
Definite volume.
The volume does not
change. It stays the
Indefinite volume.
They fill the whole
Definite mass. The
mass does not
Definite mass. The
mass does not
Definite mass. The
mass does not
Another property of matter is temperature. I can measure temperature in Celsius or
Water boils
At 100 C
At 212 F
Water freezes
At o C
At 32 F
4. Changes of matter
 Matter can change.
Matter at the beginning
A liquid (water)
A liquid (water)
A solid (ice)
A gas (water vapor)
Matter transforms into
another type of matter
A gas (water vapor)
A solid (ice)
A liquid (water)
A liquid (water)
5.Physical and chemical changes
Physical Changes
Chemical changes
Matter changes in size, shape or state
without changing identity.
Examples: A liquid becomes a gas, a sharpened
pencil, etc.
Chemical changes occur when atoms link
together in new ways. The changes cause a
new material. This new material has
properties that are different from the original
Examples: Cooking an egg, burning wood,
mixing baking soda and vinegar, etc.
Could you find other examples around you?