Study guide on matter and its properties

Matter Properties and change
Study Guide
Name: ________________
Date: ______________
1. The water cycle Science textbook: pages B48-B49.
Water cycle: The continuous movement of water between Earth’s surface and the air,
changing from liquid to gas to liquid.
Steps of the water cycle:
1. Evaporation: The process in which a liquid changes into a gas (water vapor)
2. Transpiration: The process by which plants release water vapor into the atmosphere through
their leaves.
3. Condensation: The process in which a gas (water vapor) changes into a liquid.
4. Precipitation: Any form of water particles (rain, snow, hail or sleet) that fall from the sky.
5. Groundwater: On land some of the precipitation seeps into the ground and is stored as
6. Runoff: Water that flows downhill.
The main source of water in the water cycle is the oceans.
2. Matter (Chapter 12 in the textbook, lesson 2 and 3).
Matter: Anything that has a mass and occupies space. Matter has 3 states: solid, liquid
and gas.
Mass: The amount of matter in an object. Mass is often measured in kg (kilograms or
Volume: How much space a sample of matter takes up. Volume is often measured in mL
(milliliters: mL).
Weight: The force of gravity between the Earth and an object. The weight is measured
in N (Newtons).
On the moon you would have the same mass, but you would weigh less than on Earth
because the mass of the moon is less than Earth, so the force of gravity between your
body and the moon would be less.
Density: The quantity of matter in an object.
How massive an object is for its size.
It compares an object mass with its volume.
If an object is denser than water, it will sink. If it is lighter than the water
density, it will float.
Matter is made up of atoms.
Atom: Tiny particles that cannot be cut into smaller pieces.
Atoms contain 3 kinds of particles in their center, called the nucleus: Protons (positive
electric charge), neutron (no electric charge) and electrons (negative electric charge)
that move around the nucleus.
Atoms join together to form molecules. Molecule of elements contain only one kid of
Examples: O2 (Oxygen), N2 (Nitrogen).
Element: One kind of atom. Pure substance. Elements cannot be further broken down
into other substances. There are 112 elements.
Examples: Copper, Aluminum, Mercury.
Compounds: 2 or more elements that combine form a compound. Compounds
are made up of molecules that have different kinds of atoms joined together.
Compounds are different from the elements that make them.
Example: H2O (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide)
3. Matter and its properties
 Matter has 2 types of properties: Quantitative and qualitative.
Qualitative properties
Comparison of some properties of solids, liquids and gas:
Types of matter
Definite shape.
Shape does not
Indefinite shape.
Liquids change shape.
Indefinite shape.
Quantitative properties
I can measure them.
 Mass
 Volume
 Temperature
 Density
Definite volume.
The volume in solids
does not change.
It stays the same.
Definite volume.
The volume does not
change. It stays the
Indefinite volume.
They fill the whole
Definite mass. The
mass does not
Definite mass. The
mass does not
Definite mass. The
mass does not
Another property of matter is temperature. I can measure temperature in Celsius or
Water boils
At 100 C
At 212 F
Water freezes
At o C
At 32 F
4. Changes of matter
 Matter can change.
Matter at the beginning
A liquid (water)
A liquid (water)
A solid (ice)
A gas (water vapor)
Matter transforms into
another type of matter
A gas (water vapor)
A solid (ice)
A liquid (water)
A liquid (water)
NAME: _________________
DATE: _________________
A. Choose the correct answer. /10
1. An atomic particle that has a positive charge is called an :
A. An electron
B. A neutron
C. A proton
D. A compound
2. An object ability to float depends on its _____________.
A. Size
B. Temperature
C. Insulation
D. Density.
3. Mass is the measure of the ____________________.
A. Amount of material in an object.
B. Weight of an object.
C. Space an object takes up.
D. Density of an object.
4. The molecules of a _____________ tend to be packed tightly in an organized way.
A. Gas
B. Solid
C. Liquid
D. Neutron
5. ____________ is anything that has a mass and occupies space.
A. A solid
B. A liquid
C. A gas
D. Matter
6. ___________ is how much space a sample of matter takes up.
A. Mass
B. Weight
C. Volume
D. Density
7. A measure of the force of gravity between Earth and an object is its _________.
B. Volume
C. Weight
D. Density
8. The smallest unit of an element is an ___________
B. Atom
C. Compound
D. Gas
9. In the center of an atom, there is a _____________
B. Element
C. Compound
D. Nucleus
10. Matter has 2 types of properties. The properties that you can measure like temperature, mass,
volume, density are the ______________ properties.
A. Boiling
B. Negative
C. Qualitative
D. Quantitative
B. Scientists use a variety of models to understand and explain the natural world. A formula such
as H2O is a model for water. Tell what the formula means. Give another example of a chemical
formula and tell what it means. /2
C. What is the main difference between mass and weight? Support your answers with details. /3
D. Explain how the atoms are arranged in solids, liquids and gas. /3
E. Draw the inside of an atom. Label the different parts. /4
F. Explain what experiment you could do to demonstrate that a gas has a weight? /1
G. Explain what experiment you could do to demonstrate that a liquid’s volume does not change.
H. Samantha went to the grocery store and bought fruit, meat, a few boxes of cereal and a few
canned items. Once at home, Samantha weighed the bag. It weighed 35lb. How many pounds
do the canned items weigh if the bag weighs 1 lb, the fruit 4lb, the meat 7lb and the boxes of
cereal weigh 2 lb? /1 __________________________________________________________
A student is performing an investigation in science class. Her hypothesis is that a glass of tea will
weigh more after a teaspoon of sugar is dissolved in it.
How can the student test this hypothesis? /2
Is her/his hypothesis right? Explain why. /1