# Unit 1 - Physical Properties/States of Matter Matter = anything that ```Unit 1 - Physical Properties/States of Matter
Matter = anything that takes up space and has mass
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States of Matter = solids, liquids, gases
Solids = definite shape, definite volume
Liquids = no definite shape, definite volume
Gases = no definite shape, no definite volume
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Changes of state
freezing = liquid to solid
melting = solid to liquid
boiling/evaporation = liquid to gas
condensation = gas to liquid
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Atoms = tiny particles that all matter is made of
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Atomic arrangement within the states of matter
Solids = tightly packed atoms
Liquids = atoms can slide past each other
Gases = large distances between atoms, they move freely
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Physical Properties = characteristics of matter that can be observed or measured.
List of Physical Properties
Texture, Color, Distance, Shape, Volume, Mass, Density,
Temperature-boiling, freezing, melting points
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Physical Changes = properties may change, but the substance stays the same.
Physical changes are reversible.
All changes of states are physical changes.
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Distance = measured with a ruler or meter stick
Units
millimeters = mm = smallest
1000mm = 1 meter
centimeter = cm = 100cm = 1 meter
10mm = 1 cm
kilometer = km =1000 meters
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Mass = measured with the balance
Units
milligram = mg = smallest unit = 1000mg = 1 gram
1 kilogram = 1000 grams
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Volume = amount of space an object takes up
Volume = 1. Regular shaped solid objects can be measured with a ruler (length x width x height)
Example: 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm = 1000 cubic centimeters
2. Liquids measured with a graduated cylinder or beaker and are reported in mL
3. Water Displacement method = put odd shaped object into a graduated cylinder, the amount
of water that rises in the cylinder is the volume of the odd shape
Units
milliliter = mL = smallest unit = 1000 mL = 1 Liter
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Temperature = measured with a thermometer
0 degrees Celsius = freezing point = 32 degrees Fahrenheit
100 degrees Celsius = boiling point = 212 degrees Fahrenheit
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Density = the amount of mass compared to volume of an object
Density = grams divided by milliliters
High Density = the object weighs more than the space it takes up = mass greater than volume
Low Density = the object weighs less than the space it takes up = mass less than volume
example = styrofoam
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Density of water is 1 g/mL
For every 1 gram of water it takes up 1 mL of space
If an object has a density greater than 1 g/mL it sinks
If an object has a density less than 1 g/mL it floats
---------------------------------------------------------------Example:
Fishing bait #1 has a weight of 10g and takes up 100mL of space.
Fishing bait #2 has a weight of 10g but only takes up 5 mL of space.
#1 10g Divided by 100mL = .1 g/mL which is less than 1 so it floats
#2 10g Divided by 5mL = 2 g/mL which is more than 1 so it sinks
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