Page Advanced Chemistry Notes 1.2 Properties of Matter 1.2a

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Advanced Chemistry
Notes 1.2
Properties of Matter
1.2a Properties of Matter
Physical Property – can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance
Ex: States of matter, temp, mass, density, solubility
 Water starts freezing @ 0oC (32oF)(273 K), and water starts to boil @ 100oC (212oF)(373 K)
Chemical Property – can be observed only by changing the composition of the substance
Ex: flammability, reactivity, and explosiveness
Intensive Property – does not depend on the amount of material present
Ex: density, color, odor, taste, boiling point, freezing point
Extensive Property – depends on the amount of material present
Ex: mass, length, volume, energy
1.2b States of Matter
Solid – rigid; definite shape and volume; molecules close
together vibrating about fixed points  virtually
incompressible
Liquid – definite volume but takes on the shape of the
container; molecules vibrate and can slide past one
another BUT are still close together  slightly
compressible
Gas – no definite volume and takes on the shape of the
container; molecules vibrate, are independent of each
other  VERY far apart  highly compressible
Plasma - a gas made up of ions and electrons
Ex: lightning, fluorescent lights, stars
Bose-Einstein Condensate - matter formed when temperatures are only a few billionths of a degree above
absolute zero
 Believed to have existed in the early universe, and possibly exists now in the outer layers of neutron
stars; Future uses: quantum computing
Vapor – the gas phase of a substance that is normally a solid or liquid at room temperature
Fluid – that can flow; gases and liquids
1.2c Phase Changes
Vaporization – liquid to gas
 Evaporation - vaporization at the surface of a liquid
 Boiling - vaporization throughout the liquid
Melting - solid to liquid
Freezing - liquid to solid
Condensation – gas to liquid
Sublimation – solid to gas
Deposition - gas to solid
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1.2d Observations in Chemistry
Qualitative – observations that deal with descriptions of the material
Quantitative – observations that deal with measurements of the material
Advanced Chemistry
Notes 1.2
Practice Problems
1. What is the main difference between physical properties and chemical properties?
a. Chemical properties are cooler than physical properties
b. Chemical properties are observed with the senses, physical properties are observed by
changing the substance
c. Physical properties are observed with the senses, chemical properties are observed by
changing the substance
d. There is no difference
2. Give one example of a physical property.
3. Give one example of a chemical property.
4. Circle whether each of the following is a physical change or a chemical change:
a. Tearing a sheet of paper
Physical
Chemical
b. Melting a piece of wax
Physical
Chemical
c. Burning a log
Physical
Chemical
5. Label the following as a quantitative (N) or qualitative (L) observation by placing an N or L in
the blank.
___a. The blanket is blue
___d. The reaction took 5 seconds
___b. The window is wide
___e. This quiz is cool
___c. He’s 5’9” tall
___f. This quiz has 6 questions
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6. Contrast mixtures with pure substance.