Chelsea Butka Annotated Bibliography Devanna, Mary Anne. “Women In Management: Progress and Promise.” Human Resource Management 26.4 (1987): 469-481. Business Source Complete. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. In this examination of women in higher work forces, Mary Ann Devanna bring in many interesting points about the opinions of women in management positions. As the article begins, Devanna brings up shocking statistics about the percentages of men and women in “male-dominated” occupations. Not only does she go over statistics about women in management occupations, but she also goes over the way organizations are viewed when they are managed by women. Devanna states that organizations ran by women are viewed by society as “diminutionized” or a reduction in importance. This, however, began to change after the war. Women began creeping their way into the work force, and in a poll recent to the era, there was a higher percentage of men that said they have turned down a job offer to be with family than women. Devanna touches on many of different historical and social aspects of women in the work force from the 1930s to the year the article was written, 1987, and seems to be siding towards a woman’s right to be in the work force. Nicholas, Stephen, and Deborah Oxley. "The Living Standards Of Women During The Industrial Revolution, 1795-1820." Economic History Review 46.4 (1993): 723-749. Business Source Complete. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. Chelsea Butka In this economic historical review, Stephen Nicholas and Deborah Oxley study the living standards of women during the industrial revolution, between the years 1795 and 1820. Not only do they examine declining job opportunities, seasonal and intermittent employment, poor working conditions, and unfavorable wage rates, they explore two debates; one from the pessimist’s side, and one from the optimist’s side. The debate is over one very controversial topic; did the Industrial Revolution help or hurt women’s position in society? Nicholas and Oxley’s research shows that pessimists argue that due to the Industrial Revolution, women’s roles in society have been diminished. They give a quote from Einstein, who was also a pessimist on this topic, and he says “industrialization intensified women's family roles, creating a sphere of women's work that was unpaid when beyond the market place, and low paid when in it”. On the other hand, the optimists have a very different view. They believe that the Industrial Revolution “freed women from biological constraints, opening up new job opportunities”. Both of these sides to the argument are very interesting, and Nicholas and Oxley do a great job of researching and analyzing to give light to both sides of the argument. Lopez, Esther M. "Three Feminist Interventions.('The Feminist Utopian Novels Of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Themes Of Sexuality, Marriage, And Motherhood,' 'Working Women, Literary Ladies: The Industrial Revolution And Female Aspiration,' And 'Feminist Engagements: Forays Into American Literature And Culture')(Book Review)." Studies In The Novel 3 (2011): 363. Academic OneFile. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. Chelsea Butka The text in this journal by Esther M. Lopez reviews feminist scholarship in the nineteenth and twentieth American literature. There are three journals being reviewed here, the first one being The Feminist Utopian Novels of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Themes of Sexuality, Marriage, and Motherhood, by Chloé Avril, then comes Working Women, Literary Ladies: The Industrial Revolution and Female Aspiration by Sylvia Jenkins Cook and finally Shelley Fisher Fishkin’s Feminist Engagements: Forays into American Literature and Culture. In the journal by Chloé Avril, she focuses on scholarship in utopian novels that illustrate social and political views. Sylvia Jenkins Cook puts her effort into the scholarship of working class women, which is often a group that is ignored. Finally, Shelley Fisher Fishkin’s scholarship models an intersectional approach to literary studies; each of the three sections of her book persuasively explains how looking at texts from multiple perspectives enriches literary criticism. All three of these texts are very informational and they are all journals that, when read in their entirety, provokes the mind to think in different ways. They all write about things that no journalist has ever written about before, therefore giving inspiration to many readers. ROSENBURY, LAURA A.1,2. "Work Wives." Harvard Journal Of Law & Gender 36.2 (2013): 345-404. OmniFile Full Text Select (H.W. Wilson). Web. 30 Oct. 2013. This article examines the determination of women to break their gender norms. This article reviews what it means to be a “work wife” and backs up the thesis with information including numerous laws on gender-neutral family laws and employment Chelsea Butka discrimination laws. In part one, Rosenbury examines the view of work wives in relation to concerning family law, employment discrimination, and feminist legal theory. In part two, Rosenbury examines the way that the gender roles of men and women have relatively stayed apart from each other, despite the major change in women going out into the work force. This academic journal is filled with not only facts from the law, but facts from the work force and inside the everyday household. GUTTERMAN, LAUREN JAE1, [email protected] "The House On The Borderland": Lesbian Desire, Marriage, And The Household, 1950-1979." Journal Of Social History 46.1 (2012): 1-22. OmniFile Full Text Select (H.W. Wilson). Web. 30 Oct. 2013. In this academic journal, Lauren Jae Gutterman uses a very wide variety of sources to support her thesis. With a very wide variety of interviews, diaries and letters, Gutterman incredibly finds 160 wives who had expressed lesbian desires from the 1950s through the 1970s. She reviews the difference in women’s sexual tendencies from before and after the war, and how women became more independent about their sexuality after the war. This journal is very informational about the true thoughts and feelings women had in the 1950s to the 1970s. Gutterman does a great job in researching and finding the real, true stories about women’s sexual orientations from before and after the war. Chelsea Butka Cowan, Ruth S. "The "Industrial Revolution" in the Home: Household Technology and Social Change in the 20th Century." The Johns Hopkins University Press and the Society for the History of Technology Vol. 17 (n.d.): 1-23. Print. In this journal, Ruth S. Cowan compares families from before the Industrial Revolution to after. She finds evidence to support that before the revolution, families were rather large and produced nearly everything for themselves. Then after the revolution, families began to shrink and started buying more goods. Rather than families living in rural areas, more and more were living in the cities. Production for the household was no longer of main importance; production was now meant for the market place. This journal is a very important one to read, especially for my generation. Being born in the 1990s, my generation has not experience a major revolution such as this. This was a major game-changer in this time period. People went from living on farms and growing their own food to working and living in the cities and buying their goods and services. This teaches us that things could change in a matter of a few years, and to understand what people really went through to make this change. Chelsea Butka Historical Overview This annotated bibliography and historical overview explores the evolution in scholarship on the changed gender roles of women during the Industrial Revolution. In journals in the early 1900s, many people were still very weary of the change of women’s roles from being a housewife to being able to go out and get a good job and be a part of the economic society. Women broke of their traditional ways of being a housewife and took on a more independent role. There are still many journals being written today about this jump in social societies, but rather than taking a reluctant approach as in the early 1900s, scholars now praise women in the work force, making things before the Industrial Revolution for women sound unbearable. The opinions of scholars go from being reluctant of women in the work force, to wondering why it was such a struggle for women to be recognized as valued people in the work environment. Today, women and men have equal rights in the work place and have just as many opportunities as men. With the approval of the Civil Rights Act in 1964, women have been able to be a part of the work force. Therefore, in the mid-1900s, women being involved in the work force was still fairly new. Scholars researched the progress that women were making towards being able to be recognized as reputable and useful people in the work force. Many scholars wrote about how women have not yet reached the top, but they were on their way. A good example of one of these authors is Mary Anne Devanna. She wrote a journal entitled Women in Management: Progress and Promise, which contains facts and statistics about women being in management positions. As she researches about why women are less likely to get into management positions, she states that “cultural blinders often override and make a shambles of evaluation and promotion systems and a "glass ceiling" syndrome seems to prevent women from moving into senior management positions” (Devanna, 2). Devanna writes of the struggles that women still have in the 1980s, how Chelsea Butka they are still not being treated like men are treated in work environments. As time goes on, so does the revolution of women in the work force. Besides the economic revolution, women also broke away from their traditional sexual norms. In "The House On The Borderland” by Lauren Jae Gutterman, she examines 160 wives who had expressed lesbian desires from the 1950s through the 1970s in diaries, letters and memoirs. Because of this found information, we now realize that the Industrial Revolution changed more for women than just giving them the chance to be able to work. The Industrial Revolution gave them the freedom to have lesbian relationships right in their own homes. They began to have secret relationships, but by the 1970s, women were openly telling their husbands of the affairs (Gutterman, 1). Today, scholarship of women in the work force and the Industrial Revolution are merely history reviews. In The Living Standards Of Women During The Industrial Revolution, 17951820 by Stephen Nicholas and Deborah Oxley, these scholars research back to a time where women were still suffering to become equal to men in the work force. They research “working class living standards, and the changing position of women in the family and labor market as traditional forms of production declined” (Nicholas, Oxley, 1). Scholarship on the changed gender roles of women during the Industrial Revolution has changed dramatically. In the mid-1900s, scholars were writing about women’s struggle to find equality. Today, scholars write about whether the Industrial Revolution was good or bad for women, and write historical reviews about what may have happened in the mid-1900s. The way scholars approached this topic shows that things for women have changed very quickly; from the Civil Rights Act being admitted in just 1964, to now, women have become accepted and valued Chelsea Butka in the work force in just under 50 years, and have broken their traditional “housewife” norms to become more independent.