DEFINED….Hormones- A regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in
tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action.
Biochemistry-any of various internally secreted compounds, as insulin or thyroxine, formed in endocrine
glands, that affect the functions of specifically receptive organs or tissues when transported to them by
the body fluids. Pharmacology. A synthetic substance used in medicine to act like such a compound
when introduced into the body .Botany. Also called phytohormone. Any of various plant compounds as
auxin or gibberellin, that control growth and differentiation of plant tissue.
Andogen- also called anrogenic or testoid, is any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid
hormone that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of male characteristics. The
primary and most well-known androgen is testosterone. Dihydrotesterone (DHT) and androstenedione
are less known generally, but are of equal importance in male development. DHT in the embryo life
causes differentiation of penis scrotum and prostate. Later in life DHT contributes to male balding,
prostate growth and sebaceous gland activity. (sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the
skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of
Cortisol- Secreted by the adrenal glands. As part of the stress response, the hormone that makes stored
nutrients available for energy.
Dopamine- In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter-a chemical released by nerve cells
to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine systems, one of which
plays a major role in reward-motivated behavior. Other brain dopamine systems are involved in motor
control and in controlling the release of several other important hormones. A variety of addictive drugs
increase dopamine neuronal activity. Dopamine depletion may cause Parkinson’s disease.
Endorphins –Produced by the CNS (central nervous system and pituitary gland). A natural opiate pain
killer, a “morphine-like” substance. Cause lovers to feel peaceful, secure and calm
Estrogen-any of several major female sex hormones produced primarily by the ovarian follicles of
female mammals, capable of inducing estrus, developing and maintaining secondary female sex
characteristics, and preparing the uterus for the reception of a fertilized egg: used, especially in
synthetic form, as a component of oral contraceptives, in certain cancer treatments, and in other
Epinephrine-(as part of the stress response), produced by the adrenal glands and medulla, the hormone
that stimulates the body to prepare for action.
Progesterone-a hormone, C21H302 that prepares the uterus for the fertilized ovum and maintains
Serotonin – a neurotransmitter, derived from tryptophan, that is involved in sleep, depression, memory
and other neurological processes. (heightens feelings of euphoria, but empathy and love as well).
Ghrelin- a hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract that stimulates appetite, it tells the brain
“feed me”.
Growth hormones-HGH (human growth hormone)-released during stage 4 of sleep (known as
somatropin or somatotropin, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland) (increases the synthesis of protein
essential for growth)
Insulin-stimulates cells to uptake (to take up) glucose from the bloodstream and use it for immediate
energy. Conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and muscles is also assisted by insulin.
These actions lower the blood level of glucose, and in response, the pancreas stops recreating insulin
until the next influx of glucose arrives.
Leptin-a hormone that is thought to suppress appetite and increase metabolism
Melatonin- a hormone that helps regulate biological rhythms and promotes sleep, while increasing
alertness and shifting circadian rhythms to a later hour, making it harder to fall asleep. From the pineal
gland. The pineal and hypothalamus of the brain are critical in regulating circadian rhythm.
Oxytocin- called the cuddle hormone (newly one of the stress hormones), which stimulates sensations
during lovemaking and elicits feeling of satisfaction and attachment (also known as the bonding
Testosterone-the sex hormone, secreted by the testes, that stimulates the development of male sex
organs, secondary sexual traits, and sperm.
FSH (follicule stimulating hormone). Produced by the pituitary gland. It regulates the functions of both
the ovaries and testes.
Luteinising hormone-produced by the gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. In women, LH
helps regulate the menstrual cycle and egg production (ovulation). In men, it is crucial in regulating the
function of the testes.
PEA-phenylethylamine - According to researcher Helen Fisher, the feeling that the excitement and
passion is gone from a relationship is due to a decrease of PEA level. The love smitten person’s
endocrine system secretes chemical substances such as dopamine, norepinephrine and PEA, which are
chemical cousins of amphetamines. (amphetamines are act as stimulants)
Peptide YY- a hormone made in the small intestine. It helps to reduce appetite and limit food intake.