Name AP Biology CHAPTER 14 GUIDED NOTES: From DNA to

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Name _____________________________
AP Biology
CHAPTER 14 GUIDED NOTES: From DNA to Protein
14.1
What hypothesis did George Beadle and Edward Tatum test in 1941? ________________
___________________________________________________________________________.
Describe the result of their work with bread mold (extra help on the wiki page).
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14.2
1. List 3 ways that RNA differs from DNA
1.
2.
3.
2. Briefly describe the function of each type of RNA.
a. rRNA __________________________________________________________________
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b. mRNA _________________________________________________________________
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c. tRNA __________________________________________________________________
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3. Explain the “Central Dogma” of biology.
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14.3
1. Give an overview of transcription, what happens in the 3 processes that make up transcription?
Label the diagrams that follow.
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2. Out of the work of a number of scientists, we have now determined that the four “letters” of
the DNA “alphabet” translates to the twenty “letters” of the amino acid “alphabet”. Briefly
explain how this works.
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3. Why is the genetic code said to be universal? What is the significance of this?
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4. The enzyme which transcribes the DNA is ________________________________________
The strand of DNA that is transcribed is called ____________________________________
The strand of DNA that is not transcribed is called _________________________________
5. Describe the significant differences between transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
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6. Make notes on the following diagram to describe the model of a transcription bubble.
14.4
1. Distinguish between exons and introns.
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2. Describe what happens to the RNA transcript, in eukaryotes, before it leaves the nucleus.
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3. What is the advantage of the 5’ cap and poly A tail?
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4. Watch the Lifewire RNA Splicing animation tutorial 14.3
http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire9e/default.asp#542578__591303__
Describe the mechanism for splicing RNA, including the necessary proteins, and label the following
diagram to explain the process.
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14.5
1. Identify the roles of the players of the translation process.
a. Transfer RNA ___________________________________________________________
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b. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase ________________________________________________
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c. Ribosomes _____________________________________________________________
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2. Explain the charging of tRNA and how is ATP used. __________________________________
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3. The ribosome is the molecular workbench where translation takes place. Explain the 3 sites and
their importance to the processing of mRNA.
1. _______________________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________________
3. _______________________________________________________________________
4. Identify and briefly describe the steps of translation.
a. Initiation ________________________________________________________________
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b. Elongation ______________________________________________________________
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c. Termination _____________________________________________________________
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5. Explain how polysomes are able to increase the rate of protein synthesis ____________________
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14.6
How do signal sequences determine where a protein will go after it is made? Give an example
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20. Use the diagram to trace the flow of chemical information from a gene to its protein product.
Label and make notes as to what is happening.
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