Chapter 2 Study Guide Key-1

Name: ____________________________
Chapter 2: The Development of Feudalism
Learning Targets:
I can describe the accomplishments of Charlemagne and explain how his cooperation with the pope
fostered unity in western Europe.
I can identify the factors that created a need for a new type of political system in Europe, leading to the
development of feudalism.
I can explain the roles and responsibilities of the four main social classes in European feudal society.
I can evaluate the extent to which feudalism brought political order, economic stability, prosperity, and
opportunity to Europe
1. List important terms (every word in blue throughout) for this chapter and define each term:
2. Explain in your own words what impact the fall of Rome had on Western Europe.
The lack of a central government created a situation of great vulnerability for the
Europeans. Life was dangerous and difficult. Most lived simply to survive.
3. After the fall of Rome what did the people of Europe need most?
Europeans needed protection from the Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars.
4. The Franks were successful because they developed a new style of warfare. Describe what that
was below.
This new style of warfare depended on troops of knights who were heavily armed and
fought on horseback. In return for the knight’s loyalty and service, they were rewarded
with land.
5. List two well-known kings of the Franks and give two important accomplishments by each.
King Clovis became king at 15 years old in 481. He defeated the last great Roman
army and greatly extended the boundaries of the Frankish kingdom. Clovis also converted to
Christianity and others followed his example. King Charlemagne ruled for over 40 years
from 768-814. He unified nearly all Christian lands of Europe into a single empire.
6. Describe the mutually beneficial relationship between Pope Leo III and King Charlemagne.
Pope Leo III blessed King Charlemagne and crowned him Holy Roman emperor. In
return Pope Leo III had the support of a powerful and popular king who had an army.
7. Who were the Vikings and what are they known for? List the other two groups that caused fear
in the Europeans.
The Vikings were fierce warriors who struck fear in the people of Europe. Their goal
was to set up colonies, but they are best known for their raids on towns and religious
centers. The other groups were the Muslims from the Middle East and the Magyars from
central Asia.
8. Describe the interdependent relationships between the Monarchs, Lords, Knights, and Serfs.
Each group in the social structure gave something and received something in return.
This organization provided stability for 1000 years to Western Europe. Monarchs gave land
grants to loyal lord and received protection (knights) and loyalty. Lords received land,
wealth and power by pledging loyalty to the Monarch. Knights gave protection in exchange
for land. Serfs gave their labor to produce food and received protection.
9. What is a vassal?
A vassal is- a subject or subordinate.
10. Who is William the Conqueror and what did he establish in England?
William the Conqueror was the Duke of Normandy (France) who believed he had a
right to the English throne. The English people chose to crown his cousin Harold. In 1066
William and his army invaded England and defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings. He
established a line of Norman kings in England.
11. How is social class determined in the Middle Ages? Could anyone change their social order?
Social class was determined by birth, and no, it could not change and they believe that God
chose their birth and no one was to contest it.
12. What is a “tallage”? A tallage is a tax paid by peasants to their lords.
13. What were the daily responsibilities of a Lord and Lady?
It was the lord’s responsibility to manage and defend his land and the people who
worked it. The lord appointed officials to help him oversee the villages, merchants, serfs,
and peasants, acted as judges, fought wars with the king, and provided knights to the king
as an army. Some ladies could own land and ruled it just as a man would. Non landowning
ladies were responsible for raising their own children and perhaps others, overseeing the
household and its servants, overseeing pages and squires in their younger ages, sewing and
providing entertainment to the people of the manor.
14. Who were pages and squires?
Pages and squires were knights in training. Each term refers to specific ages and
skills learned.
15. What is chivalry? Why was it important?
Chivalry was a code of conduct that knights used to determine behavior. It was
considered a way of life for those who acted as protectors of others. They were expected
to be fair, just and to protect the helpless. They were especially expected to show
kindness and acts of gallantry towards women.
16. What items that are part of a castle are there to provide protection?
While castles were homes, their main function was to provide protection using the
most advanced military technology at the time. They used moats, strong walls (either wood
or stone depending on the time period), gates, portcullises, and drawbridges.
17. What was required of a serf?
Serfs were unfree peasants who were required to work the land in exchange for
protection from their lords. Free workers were referred to as peasants. Both groups paid
taxes to the lord and lived on the manor.
18. Ask the following questions to each of these individuals.
How does feudalism establish order in your life, and how well does it do so? Answers Vary.