Cell Cycle/Mitosis/Meiosis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. List the four essential steps of any form of cell division. Write a brief description of what occurs in each phase of the cell cycle for G1, S, G2, M and C. How does interphase fit into this cell cycle organization listed above? What is meant by the G0 phase and what is the significance of cells that are permanently in G0 phase? Label the diagram of the cell cycle. Indicate where certain checkpoints are and what they are responsible for. 6. Why is the regulation of the cell cycle critical to normal function in the multicellular organism? 7. Explain the role of Cdk’s, cyclins and growth factors in the cell cycle. 8. Label and make notes on the diagram below to describe the organization of the eukaryotic chromosome, based off of Figure 9.8. 9. Define the following terms. a. karyotype _______________________________________________________________ b. haploid _________________________________________________________________ c. diploid __________________________________________________________________ d. homologous _____________________________________________________________ e. centromere ______________________________________________________________ 10. What is the purpose of the way chromosomes are organized as see in the diagram below.. What is a sister chromatid and a homologous chromosome? 11. Explain the role of the centromere, kinetochores, and the microtubules in mitosis. 12. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. 13. Define the following terms: a. gametes ______________________________________________________________ b. somatic cells___________________________________________________________ c. zygote ________________________________________________________________ d. fertilization ____________________________________________________________ e. diploid _______________________________________________________________ f. haploid _______________________________________________________________ 14. Why is meiosis called “reduction division”? Why is this process necessary for sexual reproduction? 15. Draw a diagram of the human lifecycle. Include the chromosome numbers at each stage. 16. Meiosis is said to be a double division. Explain. 17. Draw a pair of homologous chromosomes in synapsis and then illustrate a crossing over event and the products of crossing over. Label the chiasmata. 18. What are the sources of variation in meiosis and how does the genetic variation significant to natural selection and evolution? 19. What is apoptosis? 20. How is recombination frequency used to determine relative distances between genes on the same chromosomes?