Nutrition Study Guide

Nutrition Study Guide
Vocab Terms
- Calorie – the amount of energy released when nutrients are broken down is measured.
- Metabolism – the chemical process by which your body breaks down food to release energy
- Foods that are nutrient dense have a lot of nutrients, but few calories.
o Kale, Greek yogurt and salmon are all examples.
- Carbohydrates, fats and proteins all provide your body with energy
o Carbohydrates are the body’s go to energy source
o Trans fats are made when food manufacturers add hydrogen to the fat molecules in vegetable oils
o Proteins are the building blocks for muscle
o Fats help protect nerves and internal organs; can also be used as energy source.
Vitamins and minerals help you USE energy/other nutrients more effectively.
o Minerals are found in rocks and soil
o Vitamins are found in animals, animal byproducts and vegetables
Hunger vs. Appetite
- Hunger is a physical discomfort that is caused by your body’s need for nutrients.
- Appetite is wanting to eat a particular food.
Food Labels
- The best way to judge the nutritional value of a food is by reading the food label.
- Food ingredients are always listed in order of volume, from greatest to least.
- Serving size will tell you how much should be eaten in one sitting.
Body Composition
- Body Mass Index (BMI) is determined using your height and weight.
- An acceptable body fat range for females is 25-31% and for males is 18-24%.
- The safest and most sensible way to lose weight is through diet and exercise
Health Risks Related To Nutrition
- High cholesterol
o Causes plaque build up on the walls of blood vessels, making individuals more likely to suffer from
a heart attack.
- Heart disease
- High blood pressure
- Cardiovascular disease – women are more likely to suffer from strokes than men
- Plant products and vegetables will help reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease.
o Cancer is the rapid, uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells.
- Diabetes
o Two types: Type 1, Type 2
o Type 1 (Juvenile Diabetes) – the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.
o Type 2 – affects the way body processes glucose
o Both types result in high glucose levels in the blood.
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