Robert P. Lin

advertisement
Present and Future Research Directions and
Space Missions for the Space Sciences
Laboratory at Univ. of California, Berkeley
R. P. Lin
Physics Department & Space Sciences Laboratory
University of California, Berkeley
SPACE SCIENCES LABORATORY
(UC Berkeley Organized Research Unit)
Background
• Initiated in 1958 by Drs. Teller and Seaborg
• Multidisciplinary organization
• Connecting campus research to space efforts
• Facility opened in 1966
• New facilities added in 1998
Research Efforts Involving
• Balloons
• Sounding rockets
• Satellite instruments & science complements
• Complete satellites & multi-satellite missions
• Mission & Science Operations
• Ground Station Operations
Agencies Involved
• NASA, NSF, NSBF, USAF, DOE
• ESA, ISAS, IKI, PSI, etc.
• $30-50M/yr (>90% NASA, <10% other.)
Operational Missions & Instruments
THEMIS – 5 S/C MIDEX mission
RHESSI SMEX mission
FAST SMEX mission
STEREO 2 S/C - IMPACT & SWAVES
Wind 3DP
Cluster -4 S/C EFW, CIS
ROCSAT 2 - ISUAL
GALEX detectors
SOHO UVCS & SUMER detectors
Under Development
HUBBLE - COS
RBSP – E-fields
Nu-STAR
MAVEN
Under Study
NICE SMEX mission
JDEM SNAP
TARANIS XGRE
CINEMA
Operations Components
• Mission Operations Center
• Science Operations Center
• 11-meter S-Band Antenna with
X-band capability
• High Speed Communications to NASA
Ground Network
• Network Security
• Autonomous Operations
Pass Supports
Orbit Determination & Tracking
Spacecraft Command & Control
Emergency Response System
Self Checking
SSL PERSONNEL
94 Scientific Researchers/Post-Docs/Visiting
Scholars
127 Professional/Technical/Support Staff
30-40 Graduate students &
80-100 Undergraduate Students
FAST
(Fast Auroral SnapshoT)
• Science Package
Electric Field Instruments
Particle Instruments
Electronics
• Mission Operations
• Science Operations
Launched on 21 Aug 1996
Mission Presently Operating
RHESSI
(Ramaty High Energy Solar
Spectroscopic Imager)
• Project Management
• Spacecraft Bus
• Science Package
Imager
Spectrometer
Electronics
• Mission Operations
• Science Operations
• Ground Data Systems
Launched February 5, 2002
Mission presently operating
THEMIS
TIME HISTORY OF EVENTS AND MACROSCALE INTERACTIONS DURING SUBSTORMS
RESOLVING THE MYSTERY OF WHERE, WHEN AND HOW AURORAL ERUPTIONS START
Dr. Vassilis Angelopoulos, PI
THEMIS Integration and Test
• 5 identical spacecraft & instrument suites
UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory IMPACT Investigation on
NASA’s STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Observatory) Mission
Dr. Janet Luhmann (PI)
http://www.nasa.gov/stereo http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/impact
Low Gain RF
Antenna (2)
(LGA)
Adapter Ring
Bi-fold Solar Panel
SECCHI
Sun-Centered Imaging
Package (SCIP) Assy
(COR-1, COR-2, EUVI, GT)
Inertial Measurement Unit
(IMU)
PLASTIC Instrument
Sun Sensor (5)
Deployed
High Gain RF
Antenna
(HGA)
IMPACT
SEP
SECCHI
Heliospheric Imager
(HI)
Deployed
IMPACT Boom
+X
+Z
-Y
-Z
-X
+Y
IMPACT
Magnetometer
(MAG)
IMPACT
Suprathermal Electrons
(STE)
IMPACT
Solar Wind Electron Analyzer
(SWEA)
Deployed
SWAVES
Electric Field
Antenna
(3 places)
Electric Field
Instrument (J.
Wygant U.
Minnesota, PI);
J. Bonnell SSL ,
Project Scientist
Balloon Array for
RBSP Relativistic
Electron
Precipitation
R. M. Millan, PI
Dartmouth College
NCT (Nuclear Compton Telescope) S. Boggs , PI
Mars Atmosphere and
Volatile EvolutioN
(MAVEN) Mission
PI: Bruce Jakosky U. Colo. LASP
Dep. PI: Bob Lin, UC Berkeley SSL
Lockheed-Martin spacecraft
MAVEN Will Measure the Drivers, Reservoirs, and Escape Rates
• MAVEN will determine the present state
of the upper atmosphere and today’s rates
of loss to space.
• Essential measurements allow determination
of the net integrated loss to space through
time.
NICE (Neutral Ion Coupling Explorer)
S. Mende, PI
PI
SNAP
(SUPERNOVA ACCELERATION
PROBE)
Professor S. Perlmutter, Dr. M. Levi
LBNL/SSL Collaboration
• Project Management
• Spacecraft Bus
• 2m Telescope
• Integration and Test
• Mission Operations
• Ground Data Systems
size
motion
October 27,
2002
CME velocity ~2000 km/s
very large source (>200 arcsec)
expanding and rising
300”
800 km/s
RHESSI and GOES
GOES in LINEAR scale!
GOES background B6
microflares: A6 or smaller
At least 7 microflares
Spectrogram plot: time-energy,
colors represent counts
• Micro
RHESSI
Microflare spatial
distribution
(Christe et al.,
2008)
FOXSI (Focussing Optics hard X-ray
Spectrometer Imager)
FOXSI (Focussing Optics for hard X-ray
Spectroscopy & Imaging) S. Krucker, PI
Protons vs
>~30 MeV p
(2.223 MeV
n-capture line)
> 0.2 MeV e
(0.2-0.3 MeV
bremsstrahlung Xrays)
e & p separated by
~104 km, but close
to flare ribbons
GRIPS (Gamma-Ray Imaging Polarimeter for
Solar r Flares) R. Lin, PI
!.
RHESSI Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes:
XGRE
instrument
on French
(CNES)
TARANIS
mission
Wind observations of the ion diffusion region (Xgsm = - 60 Re)
(Øieroset et al., Nature, 2001)
NP
Flow reversal
VX
Earthward jets
Wind
Tailward jets
BX
Continuous Vx reversal
Hall magnetic fields
Bz reversal
BY
Hall magnetic field observed in
3 out of 4 quadrants
BZ
~4 nT Hall magnetic field (40%)
~6 nT guide field (50%)
Electron energization up to 300 keV inside the diffusion region
(Øieroset et al., PRL, 2002)
NP
Peak of electron energization
inside the diffusion region
VX
Energization up to ~300 keV
Not predicted by theory!
electrons
ions
Wind
B
Diffusion region could be a direct
source of high-energy electrons
in the Earth’s plasma sheet
ARTEMIS
ARTEMIS
“Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and
Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun”
Acceleration in shocks, tail and lunar environment
What is the nature of acceleration at shocks?
Follow evolution of particle distributions at two points along the shock.
How do MeV electrons get accelerated in the tail?
Measure field topology, particle spectra and evolution in time and space.
How do energetic (100s of keV) ions and electrons get accelerated in the wake?
Measure particles and fields in the wake and the solar wind simultaneously.
Reconnection
What is the distant tail reconnection onset mechanism, effects
and response to solar wind drivers?
•Spontaneous or induced?
•Continuous or impulsive?
Answers necessitate multiple THEMIS-type satellites at 1-20RE scales
Lunar Wake (after Lunar Prospector and WIND)
What are the plasma waves that make up the nature of the Lunar Wake?
How does the wake fill-in from near the moon to far down
What makes up, sustains and dissipates the electric fields behind the wake
Measure particles and fiels in the wake and outside at 1000-50,000km distance
The SupraThermal Electron
(STE) sensor on STEREO is the
first
silicon
semiconductor D2
detector in space to detect
D1
particles to <~2keV
D0
STE
T
R
D3
Energetic neutral atoms
(ENAs) will be detected as
ions since they will be ionized
upon passing through the
detector window.
Major peak:
Nose
γ1~2.8 below the
break (~10-12keV)
γ2~5.6 above
Minor peak:
γ1~2.5 below
γ2~5.4 above
Termination shock
IS Wind
LISM
Solar wind
Sun
Heliosphere
ENA
ISN
ion
Heliosheath
Wang et al.,
Nature , 2008
ENA at 1 AU
Major peak
Minor peak
2006 November 6 Terrestrial ENA observations
Sun
X
Y
Z
STE-U
Earth
STE-D
Average particle energy spectra
Inferred source proton energy spectra
CINEMA
(Cubesat for Ion, Neutral,
Electron, MAgnetic fields)
Sun
X
STEREO A
Y
Z
Earth
STEREO B
A
Earth
B
2007 January Anomalous ENA Observations
STEREO B
STB Detector looking direction (source direction) in GSE
coordinate
15 keV
Moo
n
Eart
h
No background
Background-subtracted flux
Source protons
jENA = jp × L ×
(σpH×nH + σpHe×nHe)
but at ~ 1 AU,
nHe = 0.015 cm-3
and nH ~ 0
Gruntman, 1997
Interstellar neural helium is present throughout the
heliosphere and beyond (except very close to the Sun,
<~0.3 AU). Interstellar hydrogen dominates outside of
~3 AU, and near planets.
Imaging of suprathermal (~few to >~30 keV) ions
throughout the heliosphere and beyond, is possible with
sensitive instrumentation to detect the ENAs from
charge exchange with interstellar helium & hydrogen
Universities Involvement in Space
Sciences
Excellence in Science
Innovation in Technology
Student Training
Efficiency (Cheap)
Opportunities:
Small/Medium Class Missions
– SMEX, MIDEX, Discovery, Mars Scout, New Frontiers,
Venture/ESSPs
International collaborative missions
Instruments on Larger Missions
Rocket & Balloon-borne Projects (& Cubesats)
NASA Solar Probe + mission
(planned launch 2015
Download
Related flashcards

History of physics

28 cards

Physical phenomena

15 cards

History of physics

36 cards

Physical phenomena

17 cards

Create Flashcards