Chapter 3 Power Point

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Chapter 3
Colonial America
Section 1: Early English
Settlements
• In 1588, King Phillip II of Spain did not
consider Queen Elizabeth, a protestant,
the rightful ruler of England. He wanted a
Catholic leader in control of England so he
sent an Armada, fleet of ships, to war
against England.
• The faster English ships defeated the
Armada and took control of the seas from
Spain.
• Before the end of the
war with Spain,
England tried to
establish a base on
the other side of the
Atlantic Ocean
without success.
•The most famous failure was the colony
of Roanoke. In 1858 Sir Walter Raleigh
sent 100 men to Roanoke Island of the
coast of present-day North Carolina.
•This first attempt was an utter failure.
The survivors of the winter returned to
England. But in 1587, Raleigh tried again
by sending men, women and children.
•The leader of the group saw his
granddaughter, Virginia Dare, the first
English child born in North America.
•In need of supplies the leader, John
White, went back to England. Here he was
delayed because the war with Spain.
•When he returned there was no one left
in the colony. The only clue to their
whereabouts was the word Croatoan
carved in a tree trunk.
•Unable to investigate due
to approaching bad
weather, the Roanoke
colonists were never seen
again. And has gone down
as one of history’s
unsolved mysteries.
Jamestown
• The failure of the Roanoke put off
other plans for colonization for about
30 years.
• Then in 1606, a group of merchants
sought charters from King James I.
•The Virginia Company of London
acted quickly. In December of
1606, they sent a ships of 144
settlers to Virginia. They arrived in
the Chesapeake Bay in April 1607.
• The colonists named their colony
Jamestown in honor of King James I.
The site they chose on a peninsula was a
good defensible site, but is was
swampland with disease carrying
mosquitoes. It also lacked good farm
land for growing of food.
• Most of the settles were also privileged
and were not accustomed to hard labor.
So instead of building shelters and
growing food, they were off searching
for gold and silver.
• Disease and hunger
took a toll on the
colonists. When the
ships arrived in the
spring of 1608, with
supplies and settlers,
only 38 of the original
144 colonists were
still alive.
• The colony only
survived its first two
years because of
Captain John Smith.
•Smith forced the
settlers to work,
explored the area,
and negotiated with
the local Native
Americans, led by
Chief Powhatan, for
corn.
•In the fall of 1609, 400 new settlers
arrived and Smith returned to England.
During his absence the settlers experienced
“the starving time”—the winter between
1609-1610.
• When the ships returned in the spring they
found only 60 colonists of around 500 still
alive.
• While the colonists did not find any gold or
silver, they stuck it out and discovered
tobacco. The first crop sold in England in
1614. Soon planters along the James river
in Virginia were growing the crop and the
colony began to prosper.
• Relations with the Native Americans
improved when colonial leader John
Rolfe married Chief Pohawatan’s
daughter Pochontas.
• In 1614, colonists were allowed to rent
plots of land to work. This encouraged
the colonists to work harder and grow
crops to sell locally. This competitive
system led colonists to greater efforts
to succeed.
• Private land ownership was expanded in
1618 for all colonists who paid their own
way to America received 100 acres of
land. They also received 50 acres for
each family member and servant they
brought to Virigina.
•As the colony began to grow, settlers
complained about taking orders from the
Virginia Company in London. In 1619, the
Company agreed to let the colonists have home
say in their government. Ten towns in the
colony sent two burgesses, representatives, to
an assembly to make local laws for the colony.
They meet for the first time in Jamestown on
July 30, 1619.
•Since the majority of the early settlers to
Jamestown were men, in 1619 the Virginia
Company sent 90 women to Jamestown. Colonists
who wanted to marry had to pay 120 pounds of
tobacco.
•Men still
outnumbered
women, but
marriage and
children became
part of life in
Virginia.
• In 1619 a Dutch ship brought the first
African labors to Jamestown and sold
them to Virginia planters.
• African laborers in Jamestown were
free and even owned property until
1640.
• William Tucker, the first African
American born in the American colonies,
was a free man.
•In the years to follow, more shiploads of Africans
would come to North America and those unwilling
passengers would be sold as slaves.
•Slavery was first recognized in Virginia
law in the 1660s.
• In the early 1620s, the Virginia
Company faced financial problems. It
had poured all of it’s profits into
Jamestown without much return.
• The colony also suffered an attack by
Native Americans.
• In 1624, King James revoked the
charter and made Jamestown the first
royal colony for England in America.
Section 2: New England Colonies
• The next wave of English colonists arrived in
America in search of religious freedom.
• King Henry VIII broke away from the Roman
Catholic church and formed the Anglican
church to divorce his wife.
•Many dissented the beliefs of the
Anglican Church. Some Protestants
wanted to reform the Anglican
Church and still others wanted to
break away completely.
• Those who wanted to reform the church
were called Puritans.
• Those who wanted to leave were called
Separatists who viewed themselves as
Pilgrims as they made their way to
North America.
• The Pilgrims sailed on the Mayflower
planning on settling in the Virginia
colony.
• Cape Cod was the first land they
sighted.
• It was well north
of their target,
but since winter
was fast
approaching they
decided to drop
anchor here.
• They went ashore
on a cold
December day at
a place called
Plymouth.
•Plymouth was outside the
laws of the Virginia
Company.
•Before going ashore the
Pilgrims drew up a formal
document called the
Mayflower Compact. It
pledged their loyalty to
England and signers
promised to obey the laws
passed for the ‘general
good of the colony.’
• During their first winter in America, almost half
of the Pilgrims died from malnutrition, disease,
and cold.
• In the Spring, Native Americans Squanto and
Samoset, befriended the colonists and showed
them how to grow corn, beans and pumpkins, also
how to hunt and fish.
• In 1625, Charles I became king of
England and began persecuting the
Puritans because of their calls for
reform of the church.
• A group of Puritans formed the
Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629,
they received a royal charter to
establish a colony north of Plymouth.
• Here the Puritans could create a new
society based on the Bible.
•The Puritans chose John Winthrop to be
the colony’s governor. He led 900 men,
women and children to Massachusetts Bay
to settle in a place called Boston.
•In the 1630s, over 15,000
Puritans journeyed to
Massachusetts to escape
religious persecution and
economic hard times.
•This movement was known
as the Great Migration.
• Initially, Winthrop and his assistants
made colony laws in the General Court,
made up of the colony’s stockholders.
• By 1634, the settlers demanded a larger
role in government and the General
Court became an elected assembly.
• Adult male church members were
allowed to vote for the governor and
their town’s representatives to the
General Court.
• The Puritans had come to America to
put their beliefs into practice and they
had little tolerance for the beliefs of
others. This led to the creation of new
colonies.
• The Connecticut River valley had better
land for farming and many settlers came
to the area in the 1630s.
• Thomas Hooker, a minister, disagreed
with the way that Winthrop and the
other Puritan leaders ran the colony.
• In 1636, Hooker led his congregation through
the wilderness of Connecticut to found the town
of Hartford.
• 1639 found Hartford joining with two other
nearby towns to form a colony and adopt a plan
of government called the Fundamental Orders of
Connecticut.
• The Fundamental
Orders of
Connecticut was
the first written
constitution in
America and it
described the
organization of
representative
government in
detail.
• The colony of Rhode Island was settled by
colonists who were forced out of
Massachusetts.
• The first of these was a minister, Roger
Williams.
•Williams had three beliefs that
caused the Massachusetts leaders
to banish him:
1.people should not be persecuted
for religious practices
2.Government should not force a
certain type of religious worship
3.It was wrong to take land from
the Native Americans.
• He took refuse with a group of Native
Americans who later sold him land
where he founded the town of
Providence.
• Williams officially received a charter in
1644.
• The policy of religious toleration made
Rhode Island a safe place for
dissenters and the first place in
America where people of all faiths could
worship freely.
• Others followed Williams example and
formed colonies where they could
worship as they pleased.
• In 1638 a group of dissidents from
Massachusetts led by John
Wheelwright founded the town of
Exeter in New Hampshire.
• They were followed by a group of
Puritans settling in Hampton.
• The colony of New Hampshire became
fully independent in 1679.
• Native Americans traded with the
settlers exchanging furs for goods such
as iron pots, blankets, and guns.
•Conflicts arose between colonials and Native
Americans as they competed for land.
• The largest of these early
conflicts was King Philips’ War.
• King Philip also known as
Metacomet, the Wampanaog
chief, wanted to stop the
settlers from moving onto
Native American land.
• The war started when colonists
executed three Wompanoags
for murder. Metacomet’s forces
attacked towns across the
region, killing hundreds of
settlers.
•Settlers and their Native American allies
fought back.
•The war ended in defeat for the Wampanoag
and their allies.
•It also destroyed the power of the Native
Americans in New England, opening the
territory for colonists to expand their
settlement.
Section 3: Middle Colonies
• By 1660, England had two clusters of
colonies in what is today the United
States: In the north—Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, Connecticut and Rhode
Island and in the south—Maryland and
Virginia.
• Between the two groups of English
controlled lands were Dutch controlled
lands.
•In 1621, a group of Dutch merchants had formed
the Dutch West India Company to trade in the
Americas. Their posts along the Hudson River
grew into the colony of New Netherland.
•The main settlement of the colony was New
Amsterdam, located on Manhattan Island.
•In 1626 the
company bought
Manhattan from the
Manhates people for
small quantities of
beads and other
goods .
• Blessed with a good seaport, New
Amersterdam became a center of
shipping to and from the Americas.
• To increase the number of permanent
settlers in its colony the Dutch West
India Company sent over families.
• The Company gave large estates to any
one who brought at least 50 settlers to
work the land.
• Wealthy landowners who acquired
riverfront estates were called patroons.
• Patroons ruled as kings, had their own
courts and laws.
• Settlers owed the patroon labor and
share of their crops.
• The Dutch colony was so valuable both
in its location and trade. The English
wanted it. In 1664, the English sent a
fleet to attack New Amsterdam.
• The governor, Peter
Stuyvesant, was unprepared
for battle so he
surrendered.
King Charles II gave
the colony to his
brother, the Duke of
York, who renamed
the colony New York.
• New York was a proprietary colony, a
colony in which the owner, or proprietor,
owned all the land and controlled the
government.
• The Duke promised freedom of religion.
This was good news to the diverse
population of the colony which included
the first Jews from Brazil, Germans,
Swedes, Native Americans, Puritans and
enslaved Africans.
• New Amsterdam became New York City
and was on of the fastest growing
locations in the colony.
• The Duke had appointed a governor and
council to run the colony, but the people
wanted representative government like
the other English colonies.
• The Duke resisted the idea but finally,
in 1691, allowed New York to elect a
legislature.
• The southern part of the New York
colony was given by the Duke to Lord
Berkeley and Sir Carteret which they
named New Jersey.
• This was also a
proprietary colony.
To get settlers to
the island Berkeley
and Carteret
offered large
tracks of land,
freedom of
religion, trial by
jury, and a
representative
assembly to make
local laws and set
tax rates.
• New Jersey was a place of ethnic and
religious diversity, but because it did
not have natural harbors it did not
develop in to a major port city.
• The proprietors did not make the
profits they had expected to make, so
they sold their shares of the colony.
• By 1702, it had become a royal colony.
• The colonists kept they representative
government to make local laws.
Pennsylvania
• In 1680, in
repayment of a
debt, William Penn
asked King
Charles for a very
large tract of land
that he named
Pennsylvania.
• Penn was a member of the Society of
Friends, or Quakers.
• They believed:
– Every individual had
“inner light” to guide
them to salvation and
could experience
religious truth directly.
– Everyone was equal in
God’s sight
– They were pacifists and would
not fight in wars
• Quaker beliefs challenged established
traditions in England and were
considered threatening.
• Quakers were fined, jailed, and even
executed for their beliefs.
• Penn saw Pennsylvania as a place to put
the Quaker ideals of toleration and
equality into place.
• He planned and built Philadelphia and
wrote the first constitution of
Pennsylvania.
William Penn’s Plan
• He also paid the Native Americans for
the land.
• To encourage settlement, he advertised
the colony throughout Europe.
• By 1683 several thousand English,
Welsh, Irish, Dutch and German
settlers had arrived.
• In 1701, Penn granted the colonists the
right to elect representatives to the
legislative assembly with the Charter of
Liberties.
Delaware
•The representatives of
the Lower Three
Counties of Pennsylvania
had a long way to travel
for voting
•So Penn in the Charter
of Privileges allowed
them to form their own
legislature.
•Thereafter they functioned as a separate colony
known as Delaware supervised by Pennsylvania’s
governor.
Section 4: The Southern Colonies
• Establishing colonies in North America
involved a great deal of work. The
settlers had to clear the land, construct
homes and churches, plant crops and
tend the fields.
• As the colonies expanded so did the
demand for capable workers, especially
in the south on the large plantations.
• This demand led to an increase in the
number of indentured servants and
slaves.
Maryland
• Lord Baltimore, Sir George
Calvert, was Catholic and he
wanted to create a place
where Catholics could
practice their religion with
out being persecuted. And
hopefully he would make a
fortune.
• In 1632, King Charles gave
him a propriety colony north
of Virginia.
•While Sir
George did
not see his
colony dying
before the
grant
became
official, his
son Sir
Cecilius developed the colony and sent his two
brothers to run it.
•Tobacco was the primary crop of Maryland, but to
make sure they were not too dependent on it they
diversified with corn, wheat, fruit, vegetables and live
stock.
• Lord Baltimore gave large estates to his
family and friends creating a wealthy and
powerful class of landowners in Maryland.
• The colony needed people to work in the
plantation fields. To bring settlers to the
colony 100 acres was promised to each male
settler, 100 acres for his wife, 100
settlers for each servant and 50 acres for
each child.
• As the plantations increased additional
workers were imported through indentured
servants and enslaved Africans.
• For years the Calvert, Lord Baltimore’s, family and
William Penn’s family had disputed the boundary
line between Maryland and Pennsylvania. To end the
dispute in the 1760s they hired Charles Mason and
Jeremiah Dixon to map a line dividing the colonies.
• The two scientists placed boundary stones that had
the Calvert Crest on one side and the Penn Crest on
the other.
• The boundary line later would
represent the division between the
slaves states and the free states.
• When Lord Baltimore opened the colony it
was to be a refuge for Catholics, but he did
allow Protestants to settler there as well.
• As the Protestants’ number swelled,
Baltimore passed the Act of Toleration in
1649 that granted Protestants and
Catholics the right to worship freely but
tensions continued between Protestants
and Catholics.
• By 1692, Protestants controlled the
assembly and imposed the same
restrictions on Catholics that existed in
England.
• While the northern and middle colonies
were being founded, Virginia was
continuing to grow. This led to more
conflict with Native Americans as
colonists moved farther inland.
• In 1640, to avoid conflicts, governor
William Berkeley worked out an
agreement with Native Americans, in
exchange for a large piece of land, the
colonists would stop pushing farther
onto their lands.
• Not everyone agreed with the governor.
Some had settled in the forbidden lands
and blamed the government for not
protecting them from the Native American
raids.
• In 1676, an wealthy young planter,
Nathaniel Bacon, led angry westerners in
attacks on Native American villages and on
Jamestown to set fire to the capital. They
drove Berkeley into exile.
• His rebellion collapsed when he got sick and
died and England sent troops to restore
order.
• Bacon’s Rebellion had
shown the leadership of
Virginia and the English
government that they
settlers were not willing
to be confined to the
coast.
• To protect the westerners
the colonial government
created a militia force to
control the Native
Americans and open up
more land for settlement.
The Carolinas
• In 1663, King Charles II created a large
proprietary colony south of Virginia. It
was named Carolina and he gave it to
eight prominent members of his court
who had helped him regain his throne.
• The new proprietors carved out large
estates for themselves and hoped to
make money by selling and renting land.
They began sending colonists over in
1670.
• By 1680, they had founded a city called
Charles Town after the king. Today it is
called Charleston.
• They even had a constitution written.
• But Carolina did not develop as planned
because of the type of settlers that
came to the colony and the economic
endeavors that they embarked on.
• The northern part was settled by
farmers from Virginia’s backcountry.
They grew tobacco and sold forest
products. Because they did not have a
natural port they relied on Virginia’s
ports for trade.
• Due to this they tended to be poorer
than the settlers in the south.
• The southern section of Carolina had
fertile farmland and a good harbor at
Charles Town.
• Many of the settlers came from the
island of Barbados in the West Indies
and they brought their slaves. They
traded in deerskin, lumber, and beef.
But they also discovered that rice grew
well and the West Indies slaves brought
their knowledge of rice cultivation from
the rice growing areas of West Africa.
• Rice will become the primary crop of
Southern Carolina.
• In 1740s, Eliza
Lucas developed the
cultivation of a
West Indies plant
indigo for the
creation of blue dye
for textiles.
• This became a very
important crop for
Southern Carolina.
• By the 1700s Carolina’s settlers were
demanding a greater role in the colony’s
government. In 1719, settlers in the
southern area seized control of the
government from its proprietors. And in
1729 Carolina became two royal
colonies—North and South Carolina.
Georgia
• Georgia was the last of the British
colonies in America to be established,
founded in 1733.
• This colony was the idea of General
James Oglethorpe who wanted a
charter to create a colony where
England’s debtors and poor people could
make a fresh start and get them out of
debtors prison.
• The British
government had
another reason
for creating
Georgia, it could
protect the other
British colonies
from Spanish
attack over
territory in
America.
• Oglethorpe led the
first group of
settlers in 1733
building the town of
Savannah and forts to
defend against the
Spanish.
• He declared that
farms be kept small
and banned slavery,
Catholics and rum.
• The colony was settled by hundreds of
poor from Great Britain, religious
refugees from Germany and Switzerland
soon Georgia had a higher percentage of
non-British settlers than any other
colony.
• Settlers quickly began to complain about
limits on the size of landholdings and
the law banning slavery.
• Oglethorpe grew frustrated at the
settlers complaints and lifted the bans
on slavery and land holding size and
turned the colony back to the King.
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