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Chapter 7
The Passing of the Roman World and
the Emergence of Medieval
Civilization
The Reforms of Diocletian and
Constantine
Diocletian (284 – 305)
Divides Empire into four administrative units
Constantine (306 – 337)
Separation and Reform of Military and Civil
Administration
Army Enlarged to 500,000 men
Foundation of Constantinople (Byzantium)
New Economic and Social Policies based
on coercion
©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
Divisions of the Restored Roman
Empire, c. 300
Transformation of the Roman World:
The Role of the Germanic People
End of the Western Empire
Huns pressure Germanic tribes to move
westward
Visigoths
• Sack of Rome (410)
Burgundians
Vandals
Odoacer deposes last Roman Emperor (476)
©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
Barbarian Migration and Invasion
Routes
The Germanic Kingdoms
The Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy
Theodoric (493 – 526)
Byzantine Invasion (535 – 554)
Lombard Invasion (568)
The Visigothic Kingdom of Spain
Coexistence between Romans and Germans
Warrior Caste
No procedure for choosing rulers
The Frankish Kingdom
Clovis (c. 482 – 511)
• Converts to Catholic Christianity c. 500
Frankish Kingdom divided into 3 parts in 6th and 7th centuries
Fusion of Gallo-Roman and Frankish Peoples
Anglo-Saxon England
Angles and Saxons invade England in early 5th century
The Society of the Germanic
Peoples
Germanic Law
Blood Feud
Wergeld
Compurgation and Ordeal
The Frankish Family and Marriage
Family Center of Social Organization
Marriage
Engagement Ceremony
Women
Development of the Christian
Church
Organization and Religious Disputes
Bishops
Heresy
• Arianism
• Council of Nicaea (325)
The Power of the Pope
Leader of the Western Christian Church
Peter the Apostle, First Bishop
Papa
Pope Gregory I (590 – 604)
• Papal States
The Spread of Christianity, A.D.
400-750
The Monks and Their Missions
Monachus = one who lives alone
Saint Antony (c. 250 – 350)
Saint Simeon Stylite
Benedictine Monasticism
Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. 480 – c. 543)
Benedictine Rule
The Abbot (“father”)
Nuns
Monks as Missionaries
Irish Monasticism
Saint Columba (521 – 597)
Iona
Roman Mission to England (Augustine the
monk)
Boniface (c. 680 – 755) mission to Frisia,
Bavaria and Saxon
Women and Monasticism
Saint Hilda founds monastery of Whitby
(657)
Leoba, a nun, founds Bischofsheim
(Germany)
Christianity and Intellectual Life
Tertullian (c. 160 – c. 225)
Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo (354 – 430)
The City of God
Jerome (345 – 420)
Translates Bible into Latin (“Latin Vulgate Bible”)
Cassiodorus (c. 490 – c. 585)
Divine and Human Readings
Seven Liberal Arts
Trivium
Quadrivium
The Byzantine Empire
The Reign of Justinian (527 – 565)
Belisarius and the Restoration of the Roman
Empire
Corpus Iuris Civilis (“Body of Civil Law”)
Life in Constantinople: The Emperor’s
Building Program
• Rebuilt after riot in 532
• Commercial Center and Trade
• Palace Complex
 Church of Hagia Sophia (537)
 Hippodrome
©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.
The Byzantine Empire in the
Time of Justinian
From Eastern Roman to
Byzantine Empire
Problems left by Justinian
Threats on the Frontiers
Muslims
• Battle of Yarmuk (636)
Bulgars
The Byzantine Empire
Greek and Christian State
Emperor
Patriarch
Split with the Western Germanic Kingdoms
The Library at Ephesus
The Rise of Islam
The Arabs
Bedouins (nomads)
Allah – Ka’ba
Mecca and Trade
Typical buildings in Sa'naa – Arabian Peninsula
Muhammad
Muhammad (570 – 632)
Born in Mecca – Caravan Manager
Hegira (Journey to Medina in 622)
Submission to the will of Allah
Qur’an (Koran)
114 Chapters
Five Pillars of Islam
Shari’a (Islamic Law)
The Expansion of Islam
The Spread of Islam
Abu Bakr becomes caliph (632)
Razzia
Jihad
Attacks against Byzantines and Persians
Assassination of Caliph Ali
Muawiya becomes caliph (661)
Umayyad Dinasty
Damascus becomes capital
Shi’ites, followers of Ali
Sunnites, supporters of the Umayyads
Conquer North Africa and much of Spain
Battle of Tours (732)
Attack on Constantinople and defeat (717 – 718)
Ceiling of the Mihrab Chapel
Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain.
Discussion Questions
How did the Germanic tribes differ from the Romans?
What role did Constantine play in the expansion of the
Christian Church in the Roman Empire?
Why was monasticism so important and influential in
Europe during the first millennium?
How successful was Christianity in converting the nonChristian peoples of Europe?
What was the place of women in the Christian world in the
early middle ages?
What was Justinian’s impact on the history of the
Byzantine Empire?
Why was Islam able to expand so quickly and widely?
Web Links
Bodies of the Bogs
The Sutton Hoo Society
Virtual Tour of monasteries
Augustine of Hippo
Hagia Sophia - Mother of Churches
Byzantine Studies on the Internet
Exploring Ancient World Cultures – Islam
The Rightly Guided Caliphs
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