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Mega-Projects
Cross Case Analysis
Group B
Jonas, Nina, Abdul, Paul
in Cooperation with George
Overview
1. Research Question
2. Methodology
3. Results
4. Answers to Research Questions
1. Research Question
Starting Point
1. RQ: Why do Megaprojects perform like they do?
2. RQ: What can we do to make them perform better?
2. Methodology
Approach for Working Plan
• Eisenhard’s Multi Case Study Process: 8 Steps
1.
2.
3.
Getting
started
Selecting
Cases
Crafting
Instruments
and
Protocols
4.
Entering
the field
6.
Analysing
data
Shaping
Hypothesis
already completed
Analysing data
•
•
Within-case analysis
Cross-case pattern search using
divergent techniques
7.
5.
Enfolding
Literature
8.
Reaching
Closure
to be done in future
Shaping Hypothesis
•
•
•
Group Work
Iterative tabulation for each construct
Replication logic across cases
Search evidence for “why” behind
relationships
2. Methodology
Working Plan and outcomes
Shaping Hypothesis
Analysing data
WORKING STEPS
OUTCOMES
1.
Initial thoughts on dimensions of
performance
•
Definition of performance as factors influencing:
a) goals, b) outcomes and c) outputs (time, cost,
quality)
2.
Get familiar with cases (1-2 per
person)
•
~ 25% of cases covered
3.
Identify common
themes/patterns
•
Check themes/patterns across the first sample
4.
Test, expand, reduce number of
themes/patterns by analysing
more cases
•
•
Saturation
Hypothesis
Conclude answers to RQ 1
Derive recommendations
answer RQ 2
inductive
deductive/
inductive
2. Methodology
Working Plan and outcomes
3. Results
Performance indicators
1.
Initial thoughts on dimensions of performance
Basic Model which Rodney refers to:
Technical perspective on
project delivery:
(Time, Cost, Quality)
Is the project/product used
in the way it was developed
for
Is the origin purpose
reached by/through the
project?
3. Results
First Cases analysed
2.
Get familiar with cases (1-2 per person)
Cases covered:
Case
Project Category
Team Member
Anholt Offshore Wind Farm
Energy
Nina
Kraftwerk Luenen
Energy
Paul
Kraftwerk Moorburg
Energy
Paul
Norra Lanken
Transportation
Jonas
Oasis Class
Miscellaneous
Abdul
3. Results
First collection of themes from cases
3.
Identify common themes
Themes from first case sample:
Theme/Pattern/Hypotheses (Influencing Factor)
Congruency between political goals (e.g. change in environm. law) and project goals
Congruency between needs (e.g. needs of community) and project goals
Increasing prices of equipment/technology impact cost
Tendering process/conditions impact cost
Uncertainty related to technology/application has impact on cost
Environmentalist groups delay projects and have impact on cost
Additional requirements of authorities increase costs
Fixed price prevent cost increase
If the owner of the project is public it has a negative impact on performance
Good stakeholder management has a postive impact on performance
Good time management has a postive impact on performance
Bankrupcy of supplier caused delay in time scale
Successful managememt of claims has positive impact on time
Checking supplier deliverables on suppliers production location
Different levels of quality check (e.g. contractor, classification society, customer)
Good procurement contract designs have positive influence on performance
High experience of project manager(s) has a positive influence performance
Theme/Pattern/Hypotheses
Category
Strategic Mgmt.
Strategic Mgmt.
Economic Environm.
Project Processes
Tech. Environment
Ext. Stakeholders
Ext. Stakeholders ?
Project Processes
Int. Stakeholders
Ext. Stakeholders
Project Processes
Int. Stakeholders
Project Processes
Project Processes
Project Processes
Project Processes
Int. Stakeholders
Impacted Perform-anceDirection of
Indicator(s)
Statement
Goals
positive
Goals
positive
Cost
negative
Cost
negative
Cost
negative
Cost
negative
Cost
negative
Cost
positive
Outcome
negative
Outcome
positive
Time
positive
Time
negative
Time
positive
Quality
positive
Quality
positive
positive
positive
3. Results
Identify more themes across cases
3.
Identify common themes
Themes from first case sample:
Additional
themes:
Theme/Pattern/Hypotheses (Influencing Factor)
Congruency between political goals (e.g. change in environmental law) and project goals
Congruency between needs (e.g. needs of community) and project goals
Increasing prices of equipment/technology impact cost
Tendering process/conditions impact cost
Uncertainty related to technology/application has impact on cost
Environmentalist groups delay projects and have impact on cost
Additional requirements of authorities increase costs
Fixed price prevent cost increase
If the owner of the project is public it has a negative impact on performance
Good stakeholder management has a postive impact on performance
Good time management has a postive impact on performance
Bankrupcy of supplier caused delay in time scale
Successful managememt of claims has positive impact on time
Checking supplier deliverables on suppliers production location
Different levels of quality check (e.g. contractor, classification society, customer)
Good procurement contract designs have positive influence on performance
High experience of project manager(s) has a positive influence performance
Analysing further cases: total 11
Checking
each
theme
through
each of
the cases:
Additional requirements of authorities has negative impact on time schedule
Change in main stakeholder (e.g. financier) has negative impact on time
High support of project by national/local government has positive impact on performance
Ext. Stakeholders ?
Int. Stakeholders
Ext. Stakeholders
Time
Time
negative
negative
positive
Bad or no risk management increases cost
If the owner of the project is equal to the contractor it has a negative impact on performance
Project Processes
Int. Stakeholders
Cost
negative
negative
3. Results
Hypothesis support by cases
4.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Test, expand, reduce number of themes/patterns by analysing more cases
Congruency between political goals (e.g. change in environmental law) and project goals
Congruency between needs (e.g. needs of community) and project goals
Increasing prices of equipment/technology impact cost
Tendering process/conditions impact cost
Uncertainty related to technology/application has impact on cost
Environmentalist groups delay projects and have impact on cost
Additional requirements of authorities increase costs
Fixed price prevent cost increase
If the owner of the project is public it has a negative impact on performance
Good stakeholder management has a positive impact on performance
Good time management has a positive impact on performance
Bankruptcy of supplier caused delay in time scale
Successful management of claims has positive impact on time
Checking supplier deliverables on suppliers production location has positive impact on time,
cost and quality
Different levels of quality check (e.g. contractor, classification society, customer)
Good procurement contract designs have positive influence on performance
High experience of project manager(s) has a positive influence performance
Additional requirements of authorities has negative impact on time schedule
Change in main stakeholder (e.g. financier) has negative impact on time
High support of project by national/local government has positive impact on performance
Bad or no risk management increases cost
If the owner of the project is equal to the contractor it has a negative impact on
performance
Green: > 40%; Yellow: 20% <x> 40%
yes
No
(support to (no support to
yes %
no %
hypothesis/ hypothesis/th of total no. of of total no. of
theme)
eme)
cases analysed cases analysed
8
0
73%
0%
6
0
55%
0%
6
1
55%
9%
1
1
9%
9%
4
0
36%
0%
5
1
45%
9%
5
0
45%
0%
2
0
18%
0%
1
3
9%
27%
4
1
36%
9%
2
0
18%
0%
1
2
9%
18%
2
0
18%
0%
1
2
2
3
2
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9%
18%
18%
27%
18%
9%
18%
9%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
1
0
9%
0%
Attention: rethink the No’s
4. Answers to Research Questions
Conclude answers for RQ 1:
1. RQ: Why do Megaprojects perform like they do?
Conclude answers to RQ. 1
From negative direction of statements
Themes/patterns/hypothesis
Congruency between political goals (e.g. change in environmental law) and project
goals
Direction of
statement
positive
Congruency between needs (e.g. needs of community) and project goals
positive
Increasing prices of equipment/technology impact cost
negative
Uncertainty related to technology/application has impact on cost
negative
Environmentalist groups delay projects and have impact on cost
negative
Additional requirements of authorities increase costs
negative
Good stakeholder management has a positive impact on performance
positive
High experience of project manager(s) has a positive influence performance
positive
4. Answers to Research Questions
Conclude answers for RQ 1:
1. RQ: Why do Megaprojects perform like they do?
Conclude answers to RQ. 1
Increasing prices of
equipment/technology
impact cost
Uncertainty related to
technology/application
has impact on cost
Environmentalist groups
delay projects and have
impact on cost
Additional requirements
of authorities increase
costs
From negative direction of statements
Prices increase during project duration
Use of complex and innovative technology
Strong negative influence by
environmentalists group
Regulations change during project duration
4. Answers to Research Questions
Conclude answers for RQ 1:
1. RQ: What can we do to make them perform better?
Conclude answers to RQ. 2
From positive direction of statements
Themes/patterns/hypothesis
Congruency between political goals (e.g. change in environmental law) and project
goals
Direction of
statement
positive
Congruency between needs (e.g. needs of community) and project goals
positive
Increasing prices of equipment/technology impact cost
negative
Uncertainty related to technology/application has impact on cost
negative
Environmentalist groups delay projects and have impact on cost
negative
Additional requirements of authorities increase costs
negative
Good stakeholder management has a positive impact on performance
positive
High experience of project manager(s) has a positive influence performance
positive
4. Answers to Research Questions
Conclude answers for RQ 2:
Derive recommendations
answer RQ 2
Good stakeholder
management has a
positive impact on
performance
High experience of
project manager(s) has a
positive influence
performance
Congruency between
political goals (e.g.
change in environm.
law) and project goals
Congruency between
needs (e.g. needs of
community) and project
goals
From positve direction of statements
4. Discussion
Next steps:
Steps to improve results:
• Analyse rest of cases
• Rethink “no’s”
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