19th Century Europe PowerPoint

Europe in 1812
T he Congress of Vienna
(September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)
Congress of Vienna’s Main
e Presided by Prince Klemens von Metternich of
Austria– Great Britain, Austria, Prussia & Russia
e It’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had
V Reduce France to its old boundaries  her
frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level.
V Restore as many of the old monarchies as
possible that had lost their thrones during the
Napoléonic era. Principle of Legitimacy
e Supported the resolution: There is always an
alternative to conflict.
The great powers were concerned with
containing revolution.
They believed in the philosophy of
Based on tradition and in value of social
Hated revolution
Unwilling to allow individual rights or
representative governments
Concert of Europe
Maintain balance of power Great Britain,
Russia, Prussia, Austria & later France agreed
to meet in the future.
Conference would take steps to maintain
peace in Europe Concert of Europe
Adopted Principle of Intervention great
powers had right to send armies into
countries threatened by revolution to restore
Britain argued that Concert of Europe should not
interfere in internal affairs of other countries
Key Players
at Vienna
Foreign Minister,
Viscount Castlereagh (Br.)
Tsar Alexander I
The “Host”
Prince Klemens von
Metternich (Aus.)
King Frederick
William III (Prus.)
Foreign Minister, Charles
Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)
Key Principles Established
at Vienna
V Balance of Power
V Legitimacy
V Compensation
e Coalition forces would occupy France for
3-5 years.
e France would have to pay an indemnity of
700,000,000 francs.
Changes Made at Vienna (1)
V France was deprived of all
territory conquered by Napoléon.
V Russia was given most of Duchy
of Warsaw (Poland).
V Prussia was given half of Saxony, parts of
Poland, and other German territories.
V A Germanic Confederation of 30+ states
(including Prussia) was created from the
previous 300, under Austrian rule.
V Austria was given back territory it had lost
recently, plus more in Germany and Italy.
V The House of Orange was given the Dutch
Republic and the Austrian Netherlands to rule.
T he Germanic Confederation, 1815
Changes Made at Vienna (2)
V Norway and Sweden were joined.
V The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed.
V Britain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and
various other colonies in Africa and Asia.
V The slave trade was condemned (at British
V Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many
Europe A fter the Congress of
Forces of Change (1)
Liberalism belief people should be as
free as possible from government
o Bill of Rights
o Religious toleration
o Constitutional government
o Suffrage only to property owning males not democracy
o Feared mob rule
Forces of Change (2)
Nationalismthe unique cultural
identity of a people based on common
language, religion, and national symbols
o Not popular until French Revolution
o Threat to existing political order
o At first, closely linked to liberalism
o No state should attempt to rule another
of 1848
Revolutionary Outbursts in
France overthrow of King Charles X;
established constitutional monarchy
Belgium rebelled against Dutch
Republic; created independent state
Poland attempted to rebel against
Russia; unsuccessful (1830)
Italy attempted to rebel against
Austria; unsuccessful (1830)
Revolutions of 1848France
o Severe economic hardships of the lower
o Middle class wanted suffrage rights
o Louis Philippe overthrown
o Universal male suffrage granted
o Set up national workshops gave jobs but
emptied treasury
o New constitution sets up 2nd Republic under
Charles Louis Napoleon (Louis-Napoleon)
Revolutions of 1848German States
o Leaders promised constitutions, free
press, jury trials, and other liberal
reforms did not actually do any
o Frankfurt Assembly formed to bring
liberal reforms failed
o Frederick William IV of Prussia refused to
take throne so no leader to enforce rules
o The unification of Germany would wait!
Revolutions of 1848Central Europe
o Austria was a multinational state
different peoples (Germans, Czechs,
Magyars (Hungary), Slovaks, Romanians,
Slovenes, Poles, Croats, Serbians,
Ruthenians (Ukrainians) and Italians one
Austrian Hapsburg ruler presiding
o Germans played leading role despite not
being majority
Revolutions of 1848Central Europe
o Prince Klemens von Metternich ousted!
o Revolutionary forces seized Vienna demanded
liberal constitution
o Hungary got its own legislature
o Bohemia Austrian army crushed Czech
rebellion with help of Russian army
Revolutions in Austrian Empire had failed!
Revolutions of 1848Italian States
o Congress of Vienna set up 9 Italian States
under various control
o Lombardy & Venetia under Austrian
o All wanted autonomy so they could unite
Italy rebellions against Austrian Empire
largely failed
o The unification of Italy would wait!
National Unification
& Nationalism
Crimean War Causes
o Russia (wanted warm water ports in
Balkans) vs. Ottoman Empire (authority in
Balkans weakening as empire in decline)
over Balkan Territories
o Other Europeans feared Russia would be a
threat if they had Balkans
Crimean War of 1853-1856
Crimean War of 1853-1856
• Russia
{Needed warm water
port & claimed duty
to protect Christians
in Ottoman EMipre}
• Ottoman
• Great
• France
Crimean War Effects & Impact
o Poorly planned & poorly fought
o Heavy losses made Russian seek peace
o Treaty of Paris 1856 Moldavia & Walachia
protected by Great Powers
o Destroyed Concert of Europe
o Great Powers now enemies (Austria did not
support Russia)
o Russia withdrew from world events for 20
o Austria had no friends among great powers
T he Italian Peninsula
Italian Nationalist Leaders
Count Cavour
[The “Head”]
[The “Sword”]
King Victor
Emmanuel II
[The “Heart”]
Italian Unification-North
1850, Austria still dominant power in
Northern Italy
Northern Italy
o Piedmont, ruled by King Victor Emmanuel II &
Camillo di Cavor (prime minister)
o Joined forces with France’s Louis-Napoleon
o Provoked a war with Austria in 1859
o Peace settlement gave Nice & Savoy to France
in return for military support
o Lombardy went to Piedmont; Austria controlled
Italian Unification-South
French Bourbon monarchy controlled
the Kingdom of Two Sicilies
Southern Italy
o Giuseppe Garibaldi raised an army of Red
Shirts gained control of Kingdom of Two
o Garibaldi turned control over to Victor
Emmanuel II of the North
Italian Unification-Venetia & Rome
• Venetia still controlled by Austria
• Rome was under control of Pope Pius IX
– Pope was afraid to give up land, feared he would
lose power
• Italy gained Venetia through alliance with
Prussia in Austro-Prussian War 1866
• Rome was annexed in 1870 Franco-Prussian
War when French troops withdrew Rome
became capital of united Italy
German Unification Key Players
Kaiser Wilhelm I
Chancellor Otto
von Bismarck
German Confederation
German Confederation
After failed attempts, Germans looked
to Prussia
Prussia known for its militarism under
King William I
Otto von Bismarck was appointed prime
minister to help military causes.
Bismarck’s War Policies
Defeated Denmark with Austrian help
Gained control of Schleswig & Holstein
Provoked war with Austria in 1866
Convinced Catholic Southern German
States to form alliance with Northern
Protestant German States for
protection against France
Franco-Prussian War over empty
throne of Spain 1870 captured French
army & Napoleon III
T he Road to Unification
Treaty of Versailles 1871
o France to pay $5 Billion Francs ($1 Billion
today standards)
o France gives up Alsace & Lorraine
Unified at last
o William I of Prussia proclaimed Kaiser of
Second German Reich (Empire)  first was
o Strongest power on European continent
Reform in Great Britain
Avoided revolution in 1840s:
o Gave industrial middle class suffrage
o Continued economic growth increased
o Queen Victoria’s long reign
Irish nationalist movement demanding
rights caused friction.
Reform in France
Louis-Napoleon asked for plebiscite
popular vote 97% voted yes to monarchy &
Empire took title of Emperor Napoleon
III Second Empire began
o Authoritarian rule
o Few rights for individuals ineffective
Liberalized his regime
o Gave legislature more power
o After defeat at Franco-Prussian War in 1870;
Second Empire fell.
Reform in the Austrian Empire
Too many different ethnic groups wanting
Concessions (compromise) made to Hungarians in
o Compromise of 1867dual monarchy Austria-Hungary
Each had own constitution
Own legislature
Own bureaucracy
Own capital cities (ViennaAustria; BudapestHungary)
Common army
Common financial system
o Common foreign policy
o One leader, Francis Joseph
Reform in Russia
Early 19th c.  still rural; still divine right
monarchy (Romanov’s); still authoritarian
o Soldiers; secret police; repression; censorship
Crimean War defeat humiliation forced
reforms under Czar Alexander II
o Emancipation edict freed serfs—own property,
marry, land
o Emancipation led to more problems than solutions
o Group of radicals assassinated Alexander II.
o Son, Alexander III turned against reforms and
reinstituted authoritarian practices.