Ch 16 Prussia, Austria and Russia Notes

The Thirty Years War
• The war begins in 1618 when Protestant
Bohemian nobles toss royal officials out a
• Spain, Portugal, Poland, and other Catholic
states fought Sweden, the Netherlands, and
other Protestant states.
• The war destroyed much of Germany and
killed 1/3 of the population.
• In 1648 the Peace of Westphalia was
signed. France won, Hapsburgs lost.
• Germany divided for next 200 years.
Hapsburg Austria
• The Hapsburgs were
weakened in Europe after
the Thirty Years War.
• The Austrian Empire turns
toward the East and the
weak Empire of the Turks
for expansion.
• Maria Theresa takes control
of the Hapsburg lands .
• There were many different
cultures in the Empire.
Hapsburg Austria
• The greatest threat to Austria and Maria
Theresa came from Frederick II of Prussia.
• Frederick II took the rich mining area of
Silesia after promising not to bother Maria
• The War of the Austrian Succession helps
unify Austria and Hungary.
• The Austrians never regain Silesia.
• Joseph II continues many of Maria
Theresa’s policies. Enlightened despot/king
Hohenzollern Prussia
• The Hohenzollern settled in
Brandenburg-Prussia after
taking lands from the church.
• The Hohenzollerns limited the
power of the Junkers or
German nobles.
• The Prussians set up an
efficient army and government.
• Frederick the Great or
Frederick II was trained from
birth to be a soldier.
Hohenzollern, Prussia
• Frederick II took the rich mining area of
Silesia after promising not to bother Maria
• The War of the Austria Succession helps
unify Austria and Hungary.
• Two great rivalries existed in Europe
Prussia vs. Austria and France vs. England.
• By 1750 the great powers of Europe were
Austria, Prussia, France, England, and
The Monarchs of Eastern and Central Europe
• Russia was the most
populous and largest
country in Europe.
• It also was the poorest
• After the death of Ivan the
Terrible there was unrest in
• The Birth of the Romanov
Dynasty, with Michael.
Peter the Great
• Peter I or Peter the Great
was 6’9” and saw the future
of Russia in the West.
• Peter wanted a warm water
port for Russia.
• Peter organized the army
and fought the Turks and
• Peter placed a tax on beards,
and the birth of babies.
Catherine the Great
• Catherine the Great’s,
Husband was murdered, so
she took over the throne.
• Catherine was a supporter of
the Arts and Science.
• Her foreign policy was to
expand Russia.
• Catherine won a warm
weather port for Russia in
the Sea of Azov, and took a
large portion of Poland.
The Partition of Poland
• Russia, Prussia, and Austria divide up Poland in the
• Austria a lifelong ally of Great Britain sides with
France. They switched sides.