The Thirty Years War • The war begins in 1618 when Protestant Bohemian nobles toss royal officials out a window. • Spain, Portugal, Poland, and other Catholic states fought Sweden, the Netherlands, and other Protestant states. • The war destroyed much of Germany and killed 1/3 of the population. • In 1648 the Peace of Westphalia was signed. France won, Hapsburgs lost. • Germany divided for next 200 years. Hapsburg Austria • The Hapsburgs were weakened in Europe after the Thirty Years War. • The Austrian Empire turns toward the East and the weak Empire of the Turks for expansion. • Maria Theresa takes control of the Hapsburg lands . • There were many different cultures in the Empire. Hapsburg Austria • The greatest threat to Austria and Maria Theresa came from Frederick II of Prussia. • Frederick II took the rich mining area of Silesia after promising not to bother Maria Theresa. • The War of the Austrian Succession helps unify Austria and Hungary. • The Austrians never regain Silesia. • Joseph II continues many of Maria Theresa’s policies. Enlightened despot/king Hohenzollern Prussia • The Hohenzollern settled in Brandenburg-Prussia after taking lands from the church. • The Hohenzollerns limited the power of the Junkers or German nobles. • The Prussians set up an efficient army and government. • Frederick the Great or Frederick II was trained from birth to be a soldier. Hohenzollern, Prussia • Frederick II took the rich mining area of Silesia after promising not to bother Maria Theresa. • The War of the Austria Succession helps unify Austria and Hungary. • Two great rivalries existed in Europe Prussia vs. Austria and France vs. England. • By 1750 the great powers of Europe were Austria, Prussia, France, England, and Russia. The Monarchs of Eastern and Central Europe • Russia was the most populous and largest country in Europe. • It also was the poorest • After the death of Ivan the Terrible there was unrest in Russia. • The Birth of the Romanov Dynasty, with Michael. Peter the Great • Peter I or Peter the Great was 6’9” and saw the future of Russia in the West. • Peter wanted a warm water port for Russia. • Peter organized the army and fought the Turks and Swedes. • Peter placed a tax on beards, and the birth of babies. Catherine the Great • Catherine the Great’s, Husband was murdered, so she took over the throne. • Catherine was a supporter of the Arts and Science. • Her foreign policy was to expand Russia. • Catherine won a warm weather port for Russia in the Sea of Azov, and took a large portion of Poland. The Partition of Poland • Russia, Prussia, and Austria divide up Poland in the 1770s. • Austria a lifelong ally of Great Britain sides with France. They switched sides.