AP EURO: LECTURE OUTLINE pp

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AP EURO: LECTURE OUTLINE pp. 597-601
REVOLUTION IN CENTRAL EUROPE:
The outbreak of revolution in Paris in February triggers uprisings throughout central Europe Prussia 1848 1. King Frederick William IV agrees to abolish censorship
2. Agrees to create a new constitution
3. Agrees to work to create a united Germany
The Frankfurt Assembly 1. German states hold elections to send representatives to an all German assembly in Frankfurt
2. The purpose of the Frankfurt Assembly was to create a constitution for a new united Germany
3. Grossdeutsch - “Big German” solution = include Austria in the new Germany
4. Kleindeutsch - “Small German” solution = exclude Austria and make the Prussian king the new
Emperor of Germany
5. Austria withdraws from the Frankfurt Assembly
6. King Frederick William rejects the offer to become emperor and Prussia Withdraws
7. Frankfurt Assembly disbands and ends in failure
Prussia cancels/rejects liberal reforms and the King goes back to ruling old regime style
Austria 1848 1. Revolution in the Austrian Empire breaks out in March of 1848
2. Louis Kossuth leads Hungarians demanding sovereignty and their own legislature
3. Demonstrations/riots in Buda, Prague, and Vienna
4. Metternich is dismissed and flees from Austria
5. Liberals in Vienna demand a new liberal constitution
6. Hungary is granted independence
7. Bohemia begins to demand self government for itself
8. The Austrian Emperor Ferdinand I (1835-1848) is weak and gives in to the demands of the liberals
The Austrian Habsburg Empire Strikes Back 1. In June the Austrian General Windischgratz crushes the Czech rebels in Prague
2. In October the rebels in Vienna are crushed
3. In December the weak Emperor Ferdinand is replaced by his nephew Francis Joseph I (1848-1916)
4. The new Emperor Francis Joseph works to restore imperial authority over Hungary
5. In 1849 the Russians send an army to assist the Habsburgs in crushing the Hungarians
6. The revolutions of in Austria fail and the Emperor is in total control again
REVOLTS IN THE ITALIAN STATES:
The attempted Italian revolutions in 1830 had failed/crushed by Austria
The Risorgimento = “resurgence” - desire for Italian independence and unity
Guiseppe Mazzini 1. Leader of the risorgimento
2. Italian nationalist
3. Founds a group called “Young Italy” in 1831
Italy 1848 1. In 1848 revolutions breakout all across Italy 2. Italian kingdoms are forced to create liberal constitutions
3. movement begins to drive out the Austrians
4. work towards the creation of a unified and independent Italy
5. In 1849 once the Habsburgs restore control over Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary they then
Send armies into Italy
6. Austrians crush the Italian revolutions and restore control and old regimes
7. Only the Kingdom of Piedmont remains as a liberal constitutional monarchy
THE FAILURES OF 1848:
Why did the Revolutions of 1848 fail?
1. Divisions within the revolutionaries between
Moderate liberals - wanted constitutional monarchies with limited voting rights
Radicals - wanted universal suffrage and social revolution
2. Divisions among nationalist groups
National minority groups fought with each other/played one group against another
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