Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) Training 2011 V1 References: - OSHA 3017 Guidebook - University of California, Berkeley, EHS Dept JSA Library - 11006115 Copyright ©2000 Business & Legal Reports, Inc. Course Overview/Description The information provided is intended to assist supervisors, directors, department heads, managers, etc., improve the quality of their working conditions, and reduce the occurrence of workplace injuries and illness, while increasing worker productivity and morale, and maintaining compliance with regulatory agencies. This course provides the techniques and resources required to perform a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA). JHA training objectives include: • Define a Job Hazard Analysis • Identify how the JHA can be a valuable planning, production, profit and safety tool • Identify which jobs to assess and how to prioritize • Know the 4 step process of completing a Job Hazard Analysis Workers in the first year with their new employer account for more than 50% of disabling claims So why are these workers getting hurt? They receive little or no safety training They perform unsafe work procedures They use inadequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) There is no safety oversight No prior JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS or JHA! The Job Hazard Analysis Defined A Job Hazard Analysis is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they result in injury, illness, property damage, or worse It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled hazards, you will take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable risk level A JHA is also known as a Job Safety Analysis or JSA - Both are considered the same The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) OSHA requires employers to furnish a place of employment free of recognized hazards that are causing, or likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees Employers (UAF) must comply with occupational safety and health standards set under the General Duty Clause, section 5(a)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 The most common and useful tool used to comply with this requirement is the JHA! Regulatory Requirements There are several other OSHA regulations that require the need for specific hazard assessments Failure to assess hazards in the workplace could lead to injuries or illness, and costly OSHA citations and penalties (fines) against your department and UAF OSHA is very likely to review your hazard assessment (JHA) program in the event of an accident/illness on the job, especially if the injury/illness results in a worker hospitalization Completing your JHAs helps ensure you have both a safe and regulatory compliant workplace! Completing your JHAs is a good thing! Benefits of JHAs include: Reduced injuries Reduced absenteeism Increased productivity Increased morale And it protects employees! More benefits of a JHA Sets performance standards Standardizes operations based on acceptable safe practices and PPE Provides a form of training documentation regarding the employee’s knowledge of the job requirements. Complies with many OSHA requirements! As you can see, completing your JHAs is a WIN-WIN situation for you AND UAF! Job Hazard Analysis - KEY TERMS What is a JOB? Any activity (mental or physical, or both) that has been assigned to an employee as a responsibility and carries with it both positive and/or negative consequences based on the performance of that job. Examples of a job include: Operating a forklift Unpacking heavy boxes and stacking books on upper shelves A research project using chemicals in a laboratory Using hand or power tools to fix something Job Hazard Analysis - KEY TERMS What is a HAZARD? A hazard is the potential for harm. In practical terms, a hazard often is associated with a condition or activity that, if left uncontrolled, can result in an injury or illness. Examples of a hazardous activity or condition include: Using a table saw with a missing blade guard (cut hazard) Using a corrosive cleaning solvent (exposure hazard) Working on a rooftop that has no guard rails (fall hazard) Manually lifting 100 pound boxes (lifting injury hazard) Performing welding activities (burn and inhalation hazards) Performing medical response activities (biological hazard) Working outdoors in an extreme weather environment (physical hazards like heat or cold stress) Job Hazard Analysis - KEY TERMS What is a CONTROL? Safe procedures or other protective measures Any provision taken to reduce or eliminate the exposure to a hazard. Types of controls include: Engineering Controls Administrative Controls Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) To assist you in developing your JHAs, various types and examples of controls will be further explained later in the presentation So then, the JHA process is simply….. The breaking down of a job into its component steps and then evaluating each step for potential or known hazards Each identified hazard is then corrected or a control method of worker protection (safe practice or Personal Protective Equipment) is identified and implemented The final product is a written standard of safe operation for that particular job. The JHA will be completed using the UAF JHA Template found on our website As you begin your JHAs, you may find there are several styles or formats used to include versions from: OSHA Publication 3071, JHA Guidebook The Facilities Services JHA Manual The Historical UAF JHA/Risk Assessment 2010 UAF EHS&RM JHA This is the current and recommended format to use when developing your UAF JHAs We will go over this form in depth, later in the presentation Example: OSHA 3071 Guidebook JHA Format Too Simple.. not enough detailed information! Example: Facilities Services JHA Format Somewhat confusing….job steps included Hazard Analysis #28 Drum, 30-55not Gal (Handling) and information is not logically listed Task Hazard Cause Prevention General Use Eye Injury Trauma Foot Injury Splashes Impact Dropped object on foot Goggles (for handling exposed chemicals) Situational awareness, gloves, and wear safety shoes PPE REQUIRED: Goggles Safety Shoes/boots Gloves EQUIPMENT PROCEDURES/REQUIREMENTS: 1. Use two people to move/lift heavy drums. 2. Read and understand Material Safety Data Sheet for chemical being handled. 3. Know where the nearest emergency eye wash/shower is and ensure a clear path. 4. Plan movement route to avoid hazards and minimize exposure to chemicals. 5. Use mechanical means to handle drums if available. 6. Secure drums when in transit to avoid tipping and spilling contents. 7. Be aware of drains along travel path to avoid any chemical entering the waste system in case of a spill. 8. Use proper body mechanics when handling heavy/awkward loads. 9. Only move drums when properly closed (unless empty and purged). 10. Push drums versus pulling them on a dolly to prevent them from falling on worker in case of a fall. 11. Operate all equipment in strict accordance with Manufacturer’s instructions. 12. Only authorized users can operate equipment. 13. Report any observed defect or safety hazard to your supervisor immediately. 14. Where any object handled would possibly cause injury to feet if dropped, safety shoes will be worn. 15. Where any object handled could possibly cause cuts, punctures or abrasions to hands, appropriate gloves will be worn. (Exception: where rotating machinery presents a greater hazard of entangling gloves, they are optional at the supervisor’s discretion). 16. Keep hands, hair and loose clothing clear of all moving parts. Historical UAF JHA Format Again, somewhat confusing for users to accurately complete With feedback from customers like you, we’ve found these previous JHA formats to be over-simplified or just too confusing This is the current, more user friendly, 2010 JHA FORMAT now used at UAF The 2010 JHA form is comprised of a few key areas you’ll need to understand Department Name and Description of Job Assessed Page 2 (reverse) of the 2010 JHA form JHA Continuation Sheet Job Description_________________________________________ Task Step Extra rows to include Hazard(s)all the job steps Other JHA information Photos Flow Charts: Other: Other: Controls Attach or link/references to photographs, flowcharts, diagrams, other chemical or equipment information, etc. So….where do you begin?? Your basic course of action will be to…. Involve your employees Review your accident history Conduct a preliminary job review List/rank/set priorities for hazardous jobs Finally…Complete a Job Hazard Analysis using the 2010 UAF JHA form! Involve your Employees… They possess a unique understanding of their specific jobs, and this knowledge is invaluable for assessing job details and identifying hazards Helps minimize oversights (by using the experts) Ensures a quality analysis Gets workers to “buy in” to the solutions because they will share ownership in their safety and health program Review your Accident History Review your worksite’s history of accidents and occupational illnesses that needed treatment, losses that required repair or replacement, and any “near misses” - events in which an accident or loss did not occur, but could have. These events are indicators that the existing hazard controls (if any) may not be adequate and deserve more scrutiny (further evaluation). EHS&RM can review historical incident/accident information at your request Conduct a preliminary job review (start a list of jobs that you perform) Brainstorm with your co-workers. Start by making a list of the jobs you do, both daily and the non-routine Discuss with your employees the hazards they know exist in their current work and surroundings. This may identify a particular job to assess Ensure your fellow employees understand you are evaluating the jobs they perform, not their performance! As you brainstorm, think of ideas to eliminate or control those hazards (this will be a major step in completing a JHA) As you conduct this preliminary job review, if you identify any hazards that pose an immediate danger to an employee’s life or health, take immediate action to protect the worker, don’t wait to complete the JHA first! Now that you have this long list of jobs….which ones need a JHA? Jobs with high accident and injury rates Jobs with the potential to cause severe or disabling injuries or illness, even if there is no history of previous accidents Jobs where there has been close calls/near misses (an event that could have resulted in harm to the worker, but did not, either by chance or timely intervention) New jobs (never evaluated) Jobs with new procedure or process changes Jobs complex enough to require written instructions Additionally, you may have to prioritize which jobs get assessed first Jobs that present unacceptable risks where hazards are most likely to occur and with the most severe consequences, should be a first priority consideration Example High Priority JHA: A job with prior related injury resulting in fatality, the need for medical attention, the loss of one or more workdays, job transfer, or loss of consciousness. Jobs where one simple human error could lead to a severe accident or injury should be the (highest priority) Who should perform the JHA? As you are taking this JHA course, you have been chosen to either develop or oversee the development of JHAs for your department Make sure you have a knowledgeable person assist with the assessment. Remember, use your experts! It should be a joint effort between those actually performing the job, supervisors, safety personnel, maintenance personnel, and any other persons having specific knowledge of the particular job being evaluated Steps in Performing a JHA Step 1—Watch the job being done Step 2—Break the job down into steps Step 3—Identify the hazards in each step Step 4—Recommend safe procedures and protection measures (controls) Let’s walk through each step of completing a JHA Step 1- Watch the job being done Effective methods to watch the job being done include: - Video Observation Photos Sketches • Your notes will help establish job steps later Step 2 - Breaking Down the Job List each job step in order of occurrence (sequence) Describe each action during the step Remember...KEEP IT SIMPLE! Avoid making the breakdown so detailed that an unnecessarily large number of steps results Avoid making the job breakdown so general that basic steps are not recorded General rule of thumb is no more than 10 steps per job Example Job Steps for….. Changing a Flat Tire Pull off road Put car in “park” Set brake Activate emergency flashers Open door Get out of car Walk to trunk Put key in lock Open trunk Remove jack Remove Spare tire Enough steps to analyze the job??? Too Many Steps! Example Job Steps for….. Changing a Flat Tire Park car take off flat tire put on spare tire drive away -- Not Enough Steps for this task! -- Skipped steps = missed hazards! Now, how about this? Park car, set brake remove jack & tire from trunk loosen lug nuts jack up car remove tire set new tire jack down car tighten lug nuts store tire & jack - Just Right! - Less than 10 steps - Most important steps listed - Key hazards can be identified So far, so good! We’ve observed the job being performed We have also broken a job down into it’s sequential steps Now comes the fun part, playing detective As you watch the job being performed, you may notice situations (hazards) that could cause harm to the worker(s), the equipment being used, or the environment in which they are working Next we’ll discuss how to identify these HAZARDS Identifying hazards is indeed an exercise in detective work! During this step you must ask yourself….. What can go wrong? How could it happen? What are the consequences? What are other contributing factors? How likely is it that the hazard will occur? What could prevent it? Step 3- Identifying the Hazards in Each Step The information gathered in step 3 will be valuable in helping to eliminate and/or reduce hazards associated with the job, and improve the system weaknesses that produced them. Conduct a “what if” scenario for each step Review product/equipment labels and manuals for assistance in hazard identification (the work is often already done for you). ALWAYS consult the: - Owners/Manufacturer Manual - Material Safety Data Sheets - Other technical data Some typical questions to ask when evaluating a job step for hazards….. Are there any known or potential chemical or radiation exposures? Any excessive noise produced or encountered? Proper ventilation to remove contaminants? Is lighting adequate? Are emergency exits clearly marked? Any potential electrical shock/exposure? Is Personal Protective Equipment being used or should it be required? More questions to ask when evaluating a job step for hazards….. Any lifting or moving heavy objects? Does work involve repetitive movements? Any work in extreme outdoor weather? Any indoor heat/cold stress? Are cuts/lacerations possible? Is equipment used with blades or other cutting/grinding parts? Any work with radioactive sources or emitters? Any work with dangerous biological agents? Here are some Common Hazards and Descriptions Chemical (Toxic): Chemical A chemical that exposes a person by absorption (Toxic) through the skin, inhalation, or through the blood stream that causes illness, disease, or death. The amount of chemical exposure is critical in determining hazardous effects. Check Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), and/or OSHA 1910.1000 for chemical hazard information. Chemical (Flammable): A chemical that, when exposed to a heat ignition (Flammable) source, results in combustion. Typically, the lower a chemical’s flash point and boiling point, the more flammable the chemical. Check MSDS for flammability information. Chemical (Corrosive): A chemical that, when it comes into contact with (Corrosive) skin, metal, or other materials, damages the materials. Acids and bases are examples of corrosives. Common Hazards and Descriptions Explosion (Chemical Reaction): Self explanatory Explosion (Over-pressurization): Sudden and violent release of a large amount of gas/energy due to a significant pressure difference such as rupture in a boiler or compressed gas cylinder. Electrical Shock/Short Circuit: Electrical contact with exposed conductors or a device that is incorrectly or inadvertently grounded, such as when a metal ladder comes into contact with power lines. 60Hz alternating current (common house current) is very dangerous because it can stop the heart. Electrical (Fire): Use of electrical power that results in electrical overheating or arcing to the point of combustion or ignition of flammables, or electrical component damage Common Hazards and Descriptions Electrical (Static/ESD): The moving or rubbing of wool, nylon, other synthetic fibers, and even flowing liquids can generate static electricity. This creates an excess or deficiency of electrons on the surface of material that discharges (spark) to the ground resulting in the ignition of flammables or damage to electronics or the body’s nervous system. Electrical (Loss of power): Safety-critical equipment failure as a result of loss of power. Ergonomics (Strain): Damage of tissue due to overexertion (strains and sprains), awkward postures, or repetitive motion. Ergonomics (Human error): A system design, procedure, or equipment that is error-provocative. (A switch goes up to turn something off). Common Hazards and Descriptions Excavation (Collapse): Soil collapse in a trench or excavation as a result of improper or inadequate shoring. Soil type is critical in determining the hazard likelihood. Falls (Slips and trips): Conditions that result in falls (impacts) from height or traditional walking surfaces (such as slippery floors, poor housekeeping, uneven walking surfaces, exposed ledges, etc.) Fire/Heat: Temperatures that can cause burns to the skin or damage to other organs. Fires require a heat source, fuel, and oxygen. Mechanical Vibration/Chaffing/Fatigue: Vibration that can cause damage to nerve endings, or material fatigue that results in a safety-critical failure. (Examples are abraded slings and ropes, weakened hoses and belts.) Common Hazards and Descriptions Mechanical Failure: Self explanatory; typically occurs when devices exceed designed capacity or are inadequately maintained. Mechanical: Skin, muscle, or body part exposed to crushing, caught-between, cutting, tearing, shearing items or equipment. Noise: Noise levels (>85 dBA 8 hr TWA) that result in hearing damage or inability to communicate safety-critical information. Radiation (Ionizing): Alpha, Beta, Gamma, neutral particles, and X-rays that cause injury (tissue damage) by ionization of cellular components. Common Hazards and Descriptions Radiation (Non-ionizing): Ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and microwaves that cause injury to tissue by thermal or photochemical means. Struck By (Mass acceleration): Accelerated mass that strikes the body causing injury or death. (Examples are falling objects and projectiles.) Struck Against: Injury to a body part as a result of coming into contact of a surface in which action was initiated by the person. (An example is when a screwdriver slips.) Common Hazards and Descriptions Temperature Extremes (Heat/Cold): Temperatures that result in heat stress, exhaustion, or metabolic slow down such as hypothermia. Visibility: Lack of lighting or obstructed vision that results in an error or other hazard. Violence In The Workplace: Any violent act that occurs in the workplace and creates a hostile work environment that affects employees’ physical or psychological well-being. Biological: Primarily airborne and blood borne viruses. Weather Events Weather can create hazardous work conditions Snow and Ice Rain Wind Extreme Heat and Cold Lightning Example Hazard Scenario 1 In a machine shop, a worker occasionally clears equipment snags by reaching into a machine cabinet, within inches of a rotating pulley. Could there be a hazard to the worker during this activity? YES! From fingers/hand getting caught in moving machinery In the previous scenario, you should consider the following hazard concerns as you perform a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) : What can go wrong? The worker’s hand could come into contact with a rotating pulley that “catches” it and pulls it into the machine. What are the consequences? The worker could receive a severe injury, possibly losing fingers or a hand. How could it happen? The accident could happen as a result of the worker trying to clear a snag during operations or as part of a maintenance activity while the pulley is operating. What are other contributing factors? This hazard occurs very quickly and leaves little time to react. Example Hazard Scenario 2 A worker in a Laboratory uses several gases for a research project. The gases include nitrogen, argon, helium, and carbon dioxide. Could there be any hazard(s) associated with using these gases in a lab setting? Yes! Many lab gases will list the known hazards right on their cylinder label. You can also find the hazards printed right on the material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each specific gas used. Again, consider the following? What can go wrong? The cylinders or hoses could leak or burst, releasing the gas. Cylinders could fall over breaking off the regulator, literally creating a rocket. Improper regulator could burst hoses/lines. What are the consequences? These gases can cause rapid asphyxiation and death when inhaled. Additionally, these gases as a liquid or a gas can cause severe frostbite to the skin and eyes. Explosion injuries. How could it happen? Workers not ensuring proper seating/tightness of cylinder and hose connections. Improper storage (unsecure cylinders). Using improper cylinder regulators (incompatible PSI ratings) What are other contributing factors? Possible that workers were not trained in lab safety procedures Give yourself a round of applause! We’ve learned how to observe the job being performed We know how a job is broken down into it’s sequential steps And we’ve discussed various hazards you might encounter on the job Finally, we’ve come to the last step, choosing the appropriate safety controls or procedures to reduce or eliminate the hazard(s) Step 4- Recommend Safe Procedures and Protection Measures (Controls) When the hazard cannot be eliminated, consider a “Control Method Hierarchy” to bring the hazard to an acceptable risk. The methods, in order of preference, are: Engineering Controls Administrative Controls Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Controls protect the worker and/or the environment! Engineering Controls: when possible, use these first! These controls focus on the source of the hazard, unlike other types of controls that generally focus on the employee exposed to the hazard. The basic concept behind engineering controls is that, to the extent feasible, the work environment and the job itself should be designed to eliminate hazards or reduce exposure to hazards In this example, a fume hood removes hazardous contaminants away from the worker’s breathing zone Examples of Engineering Controls Dilution or local exhaust ventilation systems - exhaust harmful agents away from the worker Sound dampening materials or enclosures - reduce potentially harmful noise exposures Use soap/water instead of hazardous cleaner - replacing harmful chemicals with safer substitutes Attaching dust collectors on grinding/sanding tools - help prevent contaminants from reaching workers Using cool, instead of heated, solvents - reduce breathable, harmful vapors Machine Guarding - Guards prevent contact with moving, dangerous parts Administrative Controls Administrative controls, or management controls, may result in a reduction of exposure through such methods as: Changing work habits Improving sanitation and hygiene practices Altering work schedules Making other changes in the way the employee performs the job Try Administrative Controls when engineering controls are not feasible due to cost or other limitations Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) When exposure to hazards cannot be engineered completely out of normal operations or maintenance work; and when safe work practices and administrative controls cannot provide sufficient additional protection from exposure Use PPE as a last resort! There are many types of PPE Fall protection (harness, lanyards, guardrails, etc,) Safety glasses (with and without side shields) Chemical protective clothing Welding gear (apron, sleeves, hood/goggle lens, etc.) Respirators (air-purifying and supplied-air) Gloves (Chemical or heat resistant, leather, etc.) Eye goggles/face shields Protective footwear (safety-toe shoes/boots) Hardhats and bump caps Hearing protection (ear plugs and muffs) and many more! PPE Selection Guides: can help you determine the proper PPE you’ll need 1910 Subpart I App B (eye, face, head, feet) OSHA Respiratory Protection eTool. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/respiratory /index.html Glove Selection Guide http://www.showabestglove.com/site/products /whatsthebestgloveforme.aspx National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ Please consult with EHS&RM for assistance! Other “specific” information to include on the JHA form….. Is work specific training or certification required to perform the job? If so, list it. Specific types of shop equipment must be listed (by manufacturer name, model#, etc.) Specific chemical product(s) must be listed Specific required PPE must be listed. - List “ 3ml Nitrile gloves”, not “rubber gloves” Are only certain individuals assigned this job? A completed JHA = Safe Operating Procedures A completed JHA can be effectively used as a training tool and “Safe Operating Procedure” Any person performing the job can use the JHA as a guide to safely and effectively perform the tasks involved A signed JHA is also evidence of OHSA compliance regarding hazard assessment, hazard recognition, and the right to know law! When is a JHA Revised? When an accident or injury occurs When the job changes After a Near Miss (close call) Following an employee complaint If equipment suffers damage Per a scheduled review (e.g., biannually) OK…Lets do a “simple” JHA! -Using an Office Paper Cutter First we’ll list out the sequential steps of using a typical office paper cutter Next we’ll list the associated hazards of using an office paper cutter Finally, we’ll list the controls for safe use Hey, I said it was going to be simple…. Prepare work area, set up paper cutter Cutting Paper Removing waste paper Moving paper cutter, securing blade Next, list the HAZARD(S) for each of these steps Prepare work area, set up paper cutter Lacerations, especially to fingers when unlocking blade Cutting paper Removing waste paper Moving paper cutter, securing blade Lacerations to fingers or hand Lacerations to fingers or hand Lacerations, especially to fingers when locking blade Next, we will look at CONTROLS for the safe use of the paper cutter Avoid contact with blade by making sure blade guard is in place and handle is locked down before moving paper cutter. Controls for safe use Pick up paper cutter by nonblade edges. Hold paper cutter with blade away from the body. Be aware of co-workers or bystanders as you perform this task. Avoid contact with blade. Unlock handle. Ensure finger guard in place if so equipped. Lock blade down. Avoid contact with blade. Make sure handle is locked down. Avoid contact with blade by picking up paper cutter by non-blade edges. Hold paper cutter with blade away from body. Be aware of co-workers or bystanders as you perform this task. Don’t forget to add… And list pictures/diagrams, etc. on reverse Your finished JHA looks like this: That’s wasn’t so hard, was it? Let’s try another job… Lets do another JHA! This job is a bit more complicated than using a paper cutter Job Description: -Grinding Iron CastingsA worker reaches into metal box on the floor to the left of the grinder, grasps a 15-pound casting and carries it to the grinding wheel. Worker grinds the sharp burrs from 20 to 30 castings per hour, placing finished castings in box on the floor to the right. Job Steps Step 1. Reach down into metal box to left of grinding machine, grasp casting, and carry to grinding wheel. Step 2. Push casting against grinding wheel to grind off burr. Step 3. Place finished casting in box on floor to right of machine. First, List the job steps Next, List the Step Hazard(s) Next, List the hazard CONTROLS Don’t forget to list the training and PPE requirements, and any applicable photographs too! Operation of Table Grinder, Lifting and Back Safety Training, PPE training American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Safety Glasses with side shields, leather gloves, and safety toed footwear. The Completed JHA A Quick JHA Review Develop a list of jobs you perform Prioritize which jobs to assess first Perform a Job Hazard Analysis by Observing the job steps Note all hazards associated with each step List controls (protective measures) for each hazard Note any required training for the job Include any relevant pictures, flowcharts, etc. Please contact us to review any of your JHAs. We want to ensure you understand this process. JHA Assistance and References o As you begin to perform JHAs in your department, rest assured that help is always available. EHS&RM can assist you with any particular questions or concerns you may have. o Additionally, there are many resources available to assist you. On our webpage for example, you will find several references to help you develop your JHAs, to include: - This PowerPoint presentation - Blank JHA templates - Completed JHAs you can use (cut/paste) in developing those JHAs specific to YOUR jobs! o Remember, the best overall JHA resource is: The OSHA 3071 JHA Handbook - also found on our website Congratulations! You’re almost done. Please complete the JHA Quiz GOOD LUCK!