Unit Two * Lesson Ten

Unit Two – Lesson Ten
Why was Representation a major issue at
the Philadelphia Convention
The New Jersey Plan
Congress would be unicameral (like in the A of C)
◦ Power to levy import taxes and a stamp tax to raise money. They also
would have to power to compel states to pay.
◦ Power to regulate trade between the states and with other nations
◦ Power to make laws and treaties and no state could make laws contrary
to them
Executive Branch made up of several people appointed
by Congress. They would have power to administer
national laws, appoint exec. officials, and direct military
 A Supreme Court would be appointed by the Executive
Branch. It would have the power to decide cases
involving treaties, trade between states or with other
nations, and collection of taxes
The national government would represent the
states, not the people
The Preamble
We the people (of the United States) in
order to form a more perfect union
establish justice, ensure domestic
tranquility, provide for the common
defense, promote the general welfare and
secure the blessing of liberty to ourselves
and our posterity, do ordain and establish
this constitution for the United States of
Quick Review
Name 2 rules of the Philadelphia Convention
(AKA Constitutional Convention)
The Virginian Plan
◦ How did it favor larger states
◦ What were 3 characteristics of the plan
The New Jersey Plan
◦ How did it favor smaller states
◦ What were 3 characteristics of the plan
What were the disagreements
about Representation?
Bicameral was agreed upon – less likely to abuse
their power
◦ By Population (j.madison) – believed each vote should count equally. If
you have more people, you should have more of a vote/impact.
◦ Equal Representation – the US was a confederation of different states.
Each should have an equal say in the Union’s actions.
The positions of delegates often based on the size
of state they represented.
◦ Big states favored representation based on population
◦ Small states favored equal representation
Delegates agreed if Congress was to be bicameral,
the House should be based on population. The
issue became the Senate
Small states came up with an alternate plan
Discussion of the plans
Virginian Plan
◦ supported by larger states (based on population)
◦ put the power in the hands of qualified elite
New Jersey Plan
◦ supported by smaller states (based on equality of states)
◦ put the power in the hands of elected reps
Huge debate about who should control the power
of the government
Failure of either plan to get enough support
brought the convention to an impasse
A special committee was formed with one
delegate from each state
James Madison negotiated a compromise between
the feuding sides
The Great Compromise
House of Representatives would be based on
◦ Power to develop all bills for taxation and government
The Senate would be equal in representation
◦ 2 Senators per state, appointed by the state legislatures.
(this supported the concept that the Senate represented
the States not the people)
Each side gained a strong-hold in the
compromise and gave up a little as well
 The Great Compromise passed on the first
Other Compromises
3/5ths Compromise
Economic Compromises
Representation: free/slave
Southern States/Northern States
Property owners/non-owners
Census for apportionment every 10 years
North – President makes treaties
South – Senate must ratify treaties
North – Congress can regulate trade
South – No duties on trade
New States
◦ North/South
◦ East/West
◦ Northwest Ordinance mandated new states on equal
What were the major arguments about
representation in Congress? How did the
Virginia and New Jersey Plans differ?
 What were the key elements of the Great
Compromise? How did it address the
problems of representation?
 How did the 3/5ths compromise help settle
the dispute about representation?
 How, if at all, has equal representation in the
Senate affected the principle of majority rule?