About the Language I Stage 28: More on the Ablative and Accusative A. In this Stage, you have seen sentences like this: Salvius, cum de morte regis audivisset, e castris discessit. When Salvius had heard about the death of the king, he left the camp. The words in boldface are in the ablative case. The ablative case is used with a number of prepositions in Latin. B. Study the following sentences: miles, vulnere impeditus, tandem cessit. The soldier, hindered by his wound, gave in at last. iuvenis, gladio armatus, ad castra contendit. The young man, armed with a sword, hurried to the camp. servi, catenis vincti, in fundo laborabant. The slave, bound in chains, were working on the farm. The words in boldface are in the ablative case, but there is no preposition ahead of them in Latin. Notice the various ways of translating these words into English. C. Further examples: 1. Salvius, audacia Belimici attonitus, nihil dixit. 2. mercator, fustibus verberatus, in fossa exanimatus iacebat. 3. milites, vallo defensi, barbaris diu resistebant. 4. uxor mea anulum, gemmis ornatum, emit. 5. hospites, arte ancillae delectati, plauserunt. D. Study the following examples: nona hora ad aulam venit. He came to the palace at the ninth hour. decimo die discessit. He left on the tenth day. The words in boldface indicate when something happened. To indicate time when, Latin uses the ablative case, with the preposition. E. Now study the following: multos annos hic habito. I have lived here for many years. duas horas laborabant. They worked for two hours. In these sentences, the words in boldface indicate how long something went on. To indicate duration or extent of time, Latin uses the accusative case, with no prepositions. F. Further examples: 1. hospites tres horas cenabant. 2. quarto die revenit rex. 3. Agricola provinciam septem annos administrabat. 4. secunda hora libertus Memorem excitare temptavit. 5. media nocte hostes castra nostra oppugnaverunt. 6. sex dies navigabamus; septimo die ad portum advenimus.