The Ablative Case and prepositional phrases

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Latin I, Stage 14, part 2

  A preposition is a part of speech that describes one noun’s relationship with another.

In short, they are “anywhere a cat can go:”  In  On  Over  Under  Near  Around  Into  Onto  In front of  Behind  Towards  Away from  Down from  About

          in- in/on; into/onto sub-under de -down from, about sine -without cum -with prope -near post -after, behind pro -in front of a/ab -away from, by e/ex -out of There are more, but here are the ones we will see most often in our stories.

      We all know that in Latin, a noun will be in different cases depending on how it is used in a sentence. Prepositions work the same way.

In a sentence like: Metella cum Melissā ambulat How do we know that it is “with Melissa” and not “with Metella”?

Because Metella and Melissā are in different cases!

    Notice that long line over the –a in Melissā.

Many prepositions take the accusative case, but there is a subset, like cum, that use a new case… The ABLATIVE!

This is an extremely common case.

   Sub In De      Sine Pro a/ab Cum e/ex

Latin uses a silly mnemonic device to help you remember these.

   S ub I n D e      S ine P ro A /ab C um E /ex

  Anything you are  With  In/on  Under  Down from/concerning  Without  In front of  Away from  Out of Will be in the ABLATIVE case.

case

Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative

ABLATIVE

Plurals Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative

ABLATIVE 1 st declension

a ae ae am

ā

ae xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx īs ās

īs 2 nd declension

ī us/er ō um

ō 3 rd declension

------- is ī em

e

ī xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx īs ōs

īs

es xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx ibus es

ibus

  Metella est in atriō.

What is the prepositional phrase?

  In atrio In which case is atrio?

   ablative Why is it in this case?

 “In” takes the ablative case.

Now try some on your own:

  Translation: ______________________________________ What is the prepositional phrase?

  _________________ In which case is forum?

  _________________ Why is it in this case?

 ___________________

  Translation: ______________________________________ Prepositional phrase?

  __________________ Case of mercatoribus?

  ____________________ Reason?

 ____________________

       Translation: ______________________________________ Prepositional phrase?

___________________ Case of vias?

______________ Reason?

______________

  What’s Latin class without SOMETHING a bit tricky, right?

The preposition IN has four different meanings:  in,on; into, onto  WHEN in is used with an ablative “on.”  noun, it means “in” or NOTE: there is no motion or movement taking place, you are IN a room , or something is ON a table , etc.

 When in is used with an

accusative

“onto.”  noun, it means “into” or NOTE: there IS motion taking place; you are actively walking

INTO a room

or placing something

ONTO a table

, etc.

Quintus in triclinio bibit.

__in___________

Grumio in culinam ambulat.

_______________

Mercatores in forum contenderunt .

________________

Gladiatores in arenā pugnabant.

_______________

Servus in horto laboravit.

_______________

Cerberus in hortum festinavit.

_______________

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