Chapter 4 – Settlement of the Thirteenth Colony Warm-ups and Discussion Questions Section 1 – An Age of Exploration ESSENTIAL QUESTION – What were the effects of the interactions of Europeans and Native Americans? Vocabulary • Garrison – Unit of soldiers • Mission – Church outpost • Pilgrims – Colonists who came to America on Mayflower • Puritans – Religious group that wanted to change Church of England Vocabulary • • • • Charter – Legal document Colony – land on foreign soil Friars – Catholic missionaries Huguenots – persecuted French protestants • Separatists- group that wanted to break away from Church of England What is a middleman? A trader who buys goods from producers & sells them to other traders & consumers How does he affect the cost of luxury goods? It drives the price up. What made Europeans want to find a sea route to trade with China? Marco Polo’s publication told of China’s wonderful riches. What explorer was 1st to sail eastward from Europe to the Indian Ocean? When? Bartholomew Diaz in 1488 Which explorer thought there was a shorter, easier westward route? Christopher Columbus Which European country would sponsor Columbus’s voyage? Spain (even though he was Italian) What mistake did Columbus make when he 1st landed on October 12, 1492? He thought he had landed on the islands off the coast of India & called the natives “Indians”. What areas did Columbus explore? Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Virgin Islands, & coasts of Central & South America How many trips to the New World did Columbus make? Four What happened between the battle for land between Spain and Portugal? Pope Alexander VI split the new world with his “Line of Demarcation” Who made first settlement in New World and what happened? Allyon - for spain in 1504. They hit a hard winter Allyon died and revolt broke out. For whom did John Cabot sail & what area did he explore? England; Newfoundland this was England’s claim on New World Who was the 1st explorer to find an eastward ocean trade route to India? Vasco da Gama For whom was the New World named? Amerigo Vespucci – explored South America; a mapmaker read Vespucci’s writings & named the new land “America” after Vespucci Who was the 1st explorer to reach Asia by sailing west? When? Ferdinand Magellan in 1522 Why did other Europeans not use this route? This was a longer, harder trip around the southern tip of South America; they were looking for an easier allwater route through the North American continent. What were Spanish explorers searching for in the Caribbean? Wealth What 2 explorers actually did find the riches they were hunting for? Cortes & Pizarro (see next slide) What area did each explore/conquer & what was the prize? Cortes – Mexico – conquered the Aztecs – won treasure in silver & gold Pizarro – Peru – conquered the Incas – controlled the world’s richest silver mines Who was the 1st to explore modern-day Georgia? When? Hernando de Soto in 1540 What was he hoping to find? Gold Why was de Soto able to defeat a larger army? He had superior weapons – guns, crossbows, horses, & armor. What caused the deaths of millions of Native Americans? Name them. European diseases killed almost ½ – measles, smallpox, influenza, whooping cough What caused de Soto’s expedition to fail? Most of his troops died of disease or starvation. Define the term “colony”. A settlement in a new land that has ties to their homeland Where & when was GA’s 1st settlement established? Santa Catalina mission on St. Catherine’s Island in 1566 Which European country was important in the fight to control the New World? What would it gain? Spain – gain wealth and power What was the French goal in exploration and what was their first settelment? Trading Fort Charles in Florida What happened to Spain’s fleet of ships? It was destroyed by England’s better sailors & ships and by bad storms at sea. Section 2 – English Settlement of the New World ESSENTIAL QUESTION – What caused a rivalry between England and Spain in the New World? How did the defeat of the Spanish Armada affect England? It gave them control of the seas & opened their door to the New World. How many colonies did England establish by the late 1600s & where? 12 were established along the Atlantic coast of North America. Give 3 reasons why people came to settle in these new colonies. Religious freedom Economic gain New start Better life What is “mercantilism”? An economic system for England to export more than it imported Under this system, what did the colonists provide for England? Name 3. Raw materials – sugar, timber, rice, tobacco,& cotton Name 3 ways this was of benefit to England. 1) No longer needed to import these goods from other countries 2) Could sell finished products back to the colonies & other countries 3) It strengthened the British economy. What crop was very important to Great Britain’s success in the South? tobacco Where was the 1st permanent English colony in the New World & when was it begun? Jamestown, VA in 1607 What happened there during the 1st year? Malaria killed all but 38 of the settlers. What impact did the growing of tobacco have on the Jamestown settlement? It created a need for labor. What is an “indentured servant”? A person who agreed to work 4-7 years in exchange for paid passage to the New World From where did these indentured servants come? Africa How did this system change by the end of the 17th century? They became slaves instead of servants. What caused a conflict between Spain & Great Britain in the Carolinas? Spain was already in Guale when Great Britain wanted to establish settlements. Why did Great Britain establish a colony in GA? To act as a buffer between its colonies in the Carolinas and the Spanish in Florida. Where was GA’s 1st fort located and what was its name? At the mouth of the Altamaha River; called Fort King George What happened to the fort? It was abandoned in 1727 due to Indian raids, sickness, & swampy conditions. What foods were sent to the Old World from the New World? Corn Irish potatoes Sweet potatoes/yams Peanuts Turkeys Pumpkins What foods were sent to the New World from the Old World? Rye Radishes Beets Rice Sugar cane Peaches Wheat What animals did Europe send to the New World? Horses Chickens Pigs Oxen Goats Cattle Sheep How did the introduction of these animals impact the new environment? They destroyed the native ground cover and led to the extinction of some of the animals native to the North American continent. Section 3 – The Colonization of Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTION – Why was the Georgia colony founded? Who 1st proposed establishing a colony on the Savannah River? Robert Montgomery Aaron Hill Amos Kettleby Describe James Oglethorpe’s background. He was born in London, welleducated, wealthy,& a Member of Parliament (House of Commons). What problems in England led Oglethorpe to plan for the new colony? Frequent imprisonment of debtors, high unemployment, lack of work for those who couldn’t pay their debts What kinds of prison reform (changes) did Oglethorpe work to achieve? Improve prison conditions & free thousands of debtors in prison What personal experience caused Oglethorpe to work for prison reform? Friend, Robert Castell, died of smallpox while in debtors’ prison Who 1st suggested establishing a debtors’ colony? Dr. Thomas Bray What reasons did Great Britain have for wanting to settle GA? Balanced trade to make Great Britain self-sufficient; Form a defensive buffer zone to protect British colonies against Spain, France, & Native Americans; Bring more power, money, & land to Britain What products would GA provide for the mother country? Silk Cotton dyes Wine Spices Semi-tropical fruits Name 1 advantage for those who would settle in the new colony. Religious freedom for those Protestants who were mistreated by the Catholic Church How many trustees were granted permission to establish & manage the new colony of GA? James Oglethorpe & 20 others (total of 21) Define the term “trustee.” A person who holds (or is entrusted with) responsibility on behalf of others What is a charter? A legal document that grants certain privileges & rights Name the borders for GA provided in the charter. Savannah River Altamaha River Pacific Ocean What limitations were placed on the trustees? They couldn’t own land. They couldn’t hold political office or be paid. What promise was made to those people chosen to settle in GA? 50 acres of land Tools Enough food for 1 year How was this promise different if you paid your own passage to the colony? 500 acres of land Permission to take 10 indentured servants with you What were some of the rules colonists were supposed to follow? 1.Each man was to defend the colony. 2. Land couldn’t be sold & no $$$ could be borrowed on the land. 3. He must farm the land with at least part of it planted with mulberry trees to produce silk. 4. Each would receive enough seed and farming tools to work their land for 1 year. 5. He must obey all the trustees’ rules & regulations. How many settlers were on the ship Ann, 1st ship to GA? 114-125 Where did the Ann 1st land in the New World? Charleston, SC How did Oglethorpe & the Yamacraw Indians communicate? Mary Musgrove translated for them. How was Mary Musgrove important to Oglethorpe’s plans & success? She was vital to them. The Yamacraw trusted her & she was the link between the colonists & the tribe. Where & when did the Ann’s passengers land? They landed at Yamacraw Bluff (18 miles from the mouth of the Savannah River) on February 12, 1733. What was the total population of Great Britain’s 13 New World colonies? It totaled more than 650,000 people. Section 4 – Building a New Home ESSENTIAL QUESTION – In what ways did Georgia expand and succeed as a colony? What is an artisan? Give 2 examples. An artisan is a craftsman. Examples are tailor, miller, carpenter, sawyer, surveyor. Who made up the militia? The militia was made up of the citizens of the colony. How was Robert Castell important to the settlement of Savannah? The plan for the city of Savannah is based on his design. What building projects were the 1st to be completed in Savannah? First built were the settlers’ homes, sundial, gristmill, courthouse, well, & bakery. Describe the medical problems settlers experienced shortly after their arrival. They suffered from scurvy, dysentery, & fevers. Explain the causes of these problems. They were caused by a lack of fresh fruits & vegetables, dramatic climate changes, poor sanitation, & hard physical labor. From where did the German Protestants come & for what reason? They came from Salzburg (actually in modern-day Austria) to have religious freedom from the Catholics who persecuted them. Who was their leader? His name was John Martin Boltzius. What did they name their settlement? They named it Ebenezer. What caused the Salzburgers to have to relocate? The land was marshy & it had poor soil for crops. What were the 3 regulations Oglethorpe introduced after his 1st trip to England? He kept a closer watch on the trade with Indians. He outlawed the buying of rum or using liquor in the Indian trade. He did not allow slavery. Why was slavery outlawed in the GA colony? Oglethorpe felt it caused the landowners to be idle & would increase their desire for more land. He didn’t want to create a wealthy landowner’s class of people. What economic problems existed in the colony? They had the wrong kind of mulberry trees. They couldn’t grow hemp, flax, indigo, or grapes. When Oglethorpe failed to return to GA, who took control of the colony? William Stephens took over control. When was slavery 1st allowed in the GA colony? 1750 (actually 1752 was when it went into effect) When did the trustees return control of GA back over to King George II? 1752 Name 4 things that showed GA was a successful colony. Many came for religious freedom. They signed treaties with the Indians. It ended the threat of Spanish invasions. continued Establishment of Bethesda Orphans Home by George Whitefield. John & Charles Wesley established the 1st Sunday School in America & founded the Methodist Church. The court system settlers started is still functioning today. Women became able to inherit land.