8-30 and 8-31 Europe discovers the new world Chapter 5 PPT

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Chapter 4 – Settlement
of the
Thirteenth Colony
Warm-ups and
Discussion Questions
Section 1 – An Age of Exploration
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
– What were the effects of
the interactions of
Europeans and Native
Americans?
Vocabulary
• Garrison – Unit of soldiers
• Mission – Church outpost
• Pilgrims – Colonists who came to
America on Mayflower
• Puritans – Religious group that
wanted to change Church of
England
Vocabulary
•
•
•
•
Charter – Legal document
Colony – land on foreign soil
Friars – Catholic missionaries
Huguenots – persecuted French
protestants
• Separatists- group that wanted to
break away from Church of England
What is a middleman?
A trader who buys
goods from producers
& sells them to other
traders & consumers
How does he affect the cost of
luxury goods?
It drives the
price up.
What made Europeans want to find
a sea route to trade with China?
Marco Polo’s
publication told
of China’s
wonderful riches.
What explorer was 1st to sail eastward
from Europe to the Indian Ocean?
When?
Bartholomew
Diaz in 1488
Which explorer thought there was a
shorter, easier westward route?
Christopher
Columbus
Which European country would
sponsor Columbus’s voyage?
Spain (even
though he
was Italian)
What mistake did Columbus make
when he 1st landed on October 12,
1492?
He thought he had
landed on the islands
off the coast of India &
called the natives
“Indians”.
What areas did Columbus explore?
Puerto Rico,
Jamaica, Virgin
Islands, & coasts of
Central & South
America
How many trips to the New World did
Columbus make?
Four
What happened between the battle for
land between Spain and Portugal?
Pope Alexander VI
split the new world
with his “Line of
Demarcation”
Who made first settlement in New
World and what happened?
Allyon - for spain in
1504. They hit a
hard winter Allyon
died and revolt
broke out.
For whom did John Cabot sail & what
area did he explore?
England;
Newfoundland this
was England’s claim
on New World
Who was the 1st explorer to find an
eastward ocean trade route to India?
Vasco da
Gama
For whom was the New World named?
Amerigo Vespucci – explored
South America; a mapmaker
read Vespucci’s writings &
named the new land
“America” after Vespucci
Who was the 1st explorer to reach Asia
by sailing west? When?
Ferdinand
Magellan in
1522
Why did other Europeans not use this
route?
This was a longer, harder trip
around the southern tip of
South America; they were
looking for an easier allwater route through the
North American continent.
What were Spanish explorers
searching for in the Caribbean?
Wealth
What 2 explorers actually did find the
riches they were hunting for?
Cortes &
Pizarro (see
next slide)
What area did each explore/conquer &
what was the prize?
Cortes – Mexico – conquered
the Aztecs – won treasure in
silver & gold
Pizarro – Peru – conquered
the Incas – controlled the
world’s richest silver mines
Who was the 1st to explore modern-day
Georgia? When?
Hernando de
Soto in 1540
What was he hoping to find?
Gold
Why was de Soto able to defeat a
larger army?
He had superior
weapons – guns,
crossbows,
horses, & armor.
What caused the deaths of millions of
Native Americans? Name them.
European diseases
killed almost ½ –
measles, smallpox,
influenza, whooping
cough
What caused de Soto’s expedition to
fail?
Most of his
troops died of
disease or
starvation.
Define the term “colony”.
A settlement in a
new land that has
ties to their
homeland
Where & when was GA’s 1st settlement
established?
Santa Catalina
mission on St.
Catherine’s
Island in 1566
Which European country was important in
the fight to control the New World? What
would it gain?
Spain – gain
wealth and
power
What was the French goal in exploration and
what was their first settelment?
Trading
Fort Charles
in Florida
What happened to Spain’s fleet
of ships?
It was destroyed by
England’s better
sailors & ships
and by bad storms
at sea.
Section 2 – English Settlement
of the New World
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
– What caused a rivalry
between England and
Spain in the New
World?
How did the defeat of the Spanish
Armada affect England?
It gave them control
of the seas &
opened their door
to the New World.
How many colonies did England
establish by the late 1600s &
where?
12 were
established along
the Atlantic coast
of North America.
Give 3 reasons why people came
to settle in these new colonies.
Religious freedom
Economic gain
New start
Better life
What is “mercantilism”?
An economic
system for
England to export
more than it
imported
Under this system, what did the
colonists provide for England? Name 3.
Raw materials –
sugar,
timber,
rice,
tobacco,&
cotton
Name 3 ways this was of benefit to
England.
1) No longer needed to import
these goods from other
countries
2) Could sell finished products
back to the colonies & other
countries
3) It strengthened the British
economy.
What crop was very important to Great
Britain’s success in the South?
tobacco
Where was the 1st permanent English
colony in the New World & when was it
begun?
Jamestown,
VA in 1607
What happened there during the 1st
year?
Malaria killed
all but 38 of
the settlers.
What impact did the growing of tobacco
have on the Jamestown settlement?
It created a
need for
labor.
What is an “indentured
servant”?
A person who agreed
to work 4-7 years in
exchange for paid
passage to the New
World
From where did these
indentured servants come?
Africa
How did this system change by
the end of the 17th century?
They became
slaves
instead of
servants.
What caused a conflict between Spain
& Great Britain in the Carolinas?
Spain was already in
Guale when Great
Britain wanted to
establish
settlements.
Why did Great Britain establish a
colony in GA?
To act as a buffer
between its
colonies in the
Carolinas and the
Spanish in Florida.
Where was GA’s 1st fort located and
what was its name?
At the mouth of
the Altamaha
River; called Fort
King George
What happened to the fort?
It was abandoned in
1727 due to Indian
raids, sickness, &
swampy
conditions.
What foods were sent to the Old
World from the New World?
Corn
Irish potatoes
Sweet potatoes/yams
Peanuts
Turkeys
Pumpkins
What foods were sent to the New World
from the Old World?
Rye
Radishes
Beets
Rice
Sugar cane
Peaches
Wheat
What animals did Europe send to the New
World?
Horses
Chickens
Pigs
Oxen
Goats
Cattle
Sheep
How did the introduction of these animals
impact the new environment?
They destroyed the
native ground cover
and led to the extinction
of some of the animals
native to the North
American continent.
Section 3 – The Colonization
of Georgia
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
– Why was the Georgia
colony founded?
Who 1st proposed establishing a colony on
the Savannah River?
Robert Montgomery
Aaron Hill
Amos Kettleby
Describe James Oglethorpe’s background.
He was born in
London, welleducated, wealthy,&
a Member of
Parliament (House of
Commons).
What problems in England led Oglethorpe to
plan for the new colony?
Frequent imprisonment
of debtors, high
unemployment, lack
of work for those who
couldn’t pay their
debts
What kinds of prison reform (changes) did
Oglethorpe work to achieve?
Improve prison
conditions & free
thousands of
debtors in prison
What personal experience caused
Oglethorpe to work for prison reform?
Friend, Robert
Castell, died of
smallpox while in
debtors’ prison
Who 1st suggested establishing a debtors’
colony?
Dr. Thomas
Bray
What reasons did Great Britain have for
wanting to settle GA?
Balanced trade to make Great
Britain self-sufficient;
Form a defensive buffer zone to
protect British colonies against
Spain, France, & Native
Americans;
Bring more power, money, & land to
Britain
What products would GA provide for the
mother country?
Silk
Cotton dyes
Wine
Spices
Semi-tropical fruits
Name 1 advantage for those who would
settle in the new colony.
Religious freedom for
those Protestants
who were
mistreated by the
Catholic Church
How many trustees were granted permission to
establish & manage the new colony of GA?
James
Oglethorpe &
20 others
(total of 21)
Define the term “trustee.”
A person who holds
(or is entrusted
with)
responsibility on
behalf of others
What is a charter?
A legal document
that grants
certain privileges
& rights
Name the borders for GA provided in
the charter.
Savannah River
Altamaha River
Pacific Ocean
What limitations were placed on the
trustees?
They couldn’t own
land.
They couldn’t hold
political office or be
paid.
What promise was made to those
people chosen to settle in GA?
50 acres of land
Tools
Enough food for 1
year
How was this promise different if you
paid your own passage to the colony?
500 acres of land
Permission to take
10 indentured
servants with you
What were some of the rules colonists
were supposed to follow?
1.Each man was to
defend the colony.
2. Land couldn’t be sold
& no $$$ could be
borrowed on the land.
3. He must farm the land with at
least part of it planted with
mulberry trees to produce silk.
4. Each would receive enough
seed and farming tools to
work their land for 1 year.
5. He must obey all the
trustees’ rules & regulations.
How many settlers were on the ship
Ann, 1st ship to GA?
114-125
Where did the Ann 1st land in the New
World?
Charleston,
SC
How did Oglethorpe & the Yamacraw
Indians communicate?
Mary Musgrove
translated for
them.
How was Mary Musgrove important to
Oglethorpe’s plans & success?
She was vital to them.
The Yamacraw trusted
her & she was the link
between the colonists
& the tribe.
Where & when did the Ann’s
passengers land?
They landed at
Yamacraw Bluff (18
miles from the mouth of
the Savannah River)
on February 12, 1733.
What was the total population of Great
Britain’s 13 New World colonies?
It totaled more
than 650,000
people.
Section 4 – Building a New Home
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
– In what ways did Georgia
expand and succeed as a
colony?
What is an artisan? Give 2
examples.
An artisan is a
craftsman.
Examples are tailor,
miller, carpenter,
sawyer, surveyor.
Who made up the militia?
The militia was
made up of
the citizens of
the colony.
How was Robert Castell important
to the settlement of Savannah?
The plan for the city
of Savannah is
based on his
design.
What building projects were the 1st
to be completed in Savannah?
First built were the
settlers’ homes,
sundial, gristmill,
courthouse, well, &
bakery.
Describe the medical problems settlers
experienced shortly after their arrival.
They suffered
from scurvy,
dysentery, &
fevers.
Explain the causes of these problems.
They were caused by a
lack of fresh fruits &
vegetables, dramatic
climate changes,
poor sanitation, &
hard physical labor.
From where did the German
Protestants come & for what reason?
They came from Salzburg
(actually in modern-day
Austria) to have
religious freedom from
the Catholics who
persecuted them.
Who was their leader?
His name was
John Martin
Boltzius.
What did they name their settlement?
They named
it Ebenezer.
What caused the Salzburgers to have
to relocate?
The land was
marshy & it had
poor soil for
crops.
What were the 3 regulations Oglethorpe
introduced after his 1st trip to England?
He kept a closer watch on the
trade with Indians.
He outlawed the buying of
rum or using liquor in the
Indian trade.
He did not allow slavery.
Why was slavery outlawed in the GA
colony?
Oglethorpe felt it caused the
landowners to be idle &
would increase their desire
for more land. He didn’t
want to create a wealthy
landowner’s class of
people.
What economic problems existed in the
colony?
They had the wrong kind
of mulberry trees.
They couldn’t grow
hemp, flax, indigo, or
grapes.
When Oglethorpe failed to return to GA, who
took control of the colony?
William
Stephens took
over control.
When was slavery 1st allowed in the GA
colony?
1750
(actually 1752 was when it
went into effect)
When did the trustees return control of GA
back over to King George II?
1752
Name 4 things that showed GA was a
successful colony.
Many came for religious
freedom.
They signed treaties with the
Indians.
It ended the threat of Spanish
invasions.
continued
Establishment of Bethesda Orphans
Home by George Whitefield.
John & Charles Wesley established
the 1st Sunday School in America
& founded the Methodist Church.
The court system settlers started is
still functioning today.
Women became able to inherit land.
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