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Indian Ocean Basin
Map Link: Portuguese/Spanish Spice Routes:
<http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/
16th_century_Portuguese_Spanish_trade_routes.png/
1280px-16th_century_Portuguese_Spanish_trade_routes.png>
Horn of Africa and east coast
Berbera and Land of the Zanj
8th c. Start of Muslim settlement on east coast
of Africa
Map Link: Africa in 979:
<http://www.timemaps.com/store/timemaps/2012/12/
newafrica_ad979.jpg>
8th c. Start of Muslim settlement in S. Asia
10th c. Muslim traders on Malabar coast
11th c. Muslim states in S. Asia
Map Link: South Asia in 1215:
<http://www.timemaps.com/store/timemaps/2012/4/
newsouthasia_ad1215.jpg>
“The Lands below the winds”
Strait of Melaka (Malacca)
Sunda Strait
Map Link: Southeast Asia:
<http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/fc/Southeast_asia.svg/506pxSoutheast_asia.svg.png>
Themes:
Trade
Conversion
Conflict
Activities of merchants
Bantu
Swahili (Sahel)
Intermarriage
Deeper spread in Horn of Africa
Map Link: Africa in 1453:
<http://www.timemaps.com/store/timemaps/2012/4/
africa_ad1453.jpg>
Activities of merchants
End 15th c. Many conversions on Malabar
coast
Mappilas (Moplahs)
Map Link: South Asia in 1453:
<http://www.timemaps.com/store/timemaps/2012/4/
newsouthasia_ad1453.jpg>
Activities of merchants in 13th-16th c.
Aceh
Java
“Orthodoxy” vs. custom
Tolerance
Map Link: Southeast Asia in 1453:
<http://www.timemaps.com/store/timemaps/2012/4/
seasia_ad1453.jpg>
1492 Spanish take Granada, end Muslim states
in Iberia
1498 Vasco de Gama rounds Cape of Good
Hope, reaches Malabar Coast
Portuguese/Spanish crusade against Islam
1570 Spanish take Manila. Conquest of
Philippines follows (Philip II, r. 1556-98)
Early 17th c. English and Dutch fight for
dominance in Southeast Asia (Dutch win)
Monopoly, through force if necessary
Map Link: Southeast Asia in 1648:
<http://www.timemaps.com/store/timemaps/2012/7/
seasia_ad1648.jpg>
Reactions:
16th c. Mappilas respond to Portuguese
crusade with modified jihad
Islam as symbol of resistance
Decline of Southeast Asian Islam under
Dutch:
Cutting out the middlemen – decline of
Muslim merchant class
Controlling prices – impoverishment of
cities
Breakdown of communications
Sidi (Seydi) Ali Reis (1498-1563)
Ottoman admiral commissioned by sultan to
fight Portuguese in Indian Ocean
Unintended travels in India and elsewhere in
1553-56, incl. meeting Mughal Emperor
Humayun (r. 1530-56)
Mir’at al-Memalik (The Mirror of the Countries,
1557)
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