Ch.1: Many Cultures Meet Mr. Dzicek U.S. History (10) Review PowerPoint Terms/People to Know • Ice Age- time lasting thousands of years when Earth was covered by ice/glaciers. • Migrate- to move, travel. • Mayas- Native peoples along the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean coast. Terms/People to Know • Aztecs- Native peoples of central Mexico (became most powerful) • Adobe- type of sun-dried brick used to make houses (typically in the Southwest)(Hohokams) • Iroquois League- Made up of Iroquois peoples (five groups… Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas). Designed to promote peaceful cooperation among member nations. Terms/People to Know • Middle Ages- began with fall of Rome. No effective central government, constant threat of famine, disease, war. • Renaissance- 1400s Europe. Renewed interest in learning, arts/sciences. • Reconquista- Wars waged by Europeans (Portugal, Aragon,Castile) to force out Muslim Moors in SW Europe. Terms/People to Know • Prince Henry the Navigator- Started Portuguese efforts to sail into Atlantic, spread Christianity, get rid of Muslim domination of trade. • Ghana- Earliest kingdom in W. Africa. Thrived in trade, had major Muslim influence. Supplied much of gold to Med. Region. Terms/People to Know • Mali- Kingdom that rose once Ghana fell. • Mansa Musa- Most famous ruler of Mali kingdom. Increased role of Islam, promoted scholarship (university in Timbuktu) • Songhai- Ruled by Askia Muhammad. Focused on Islamic education. Conquered Mali. Terms/People to Know • Bartolomeu Dias- Portuguese mariner. Got around southern Africa. • Vasco da Gama- Portuguese mariner who reached India, opening trade. Portuguese dominance of south and east Africa. Terms/People to Know • Christopher Columbus- Italian. Sailed on behalf of Spain. Seeking route to China. Wanted to revive Christianity, sailed west. Ended up in the Americas. • John Cabot- Italian. Sailed on behalf of England. Arrived in New Foundland. • Pedro Alvarez Cabral- Portuguese explorer who sailed to Brazil (1500) Terms/People to Know • Amerigo Vespucci- Italian. Explored South American coast and declared it a new continent. Mapmakers called both continents the “Americas.” • Ferdinand Magellan- succeeded in encircling the entire globe. Terms/People to Know • Conquistadors- Spanish explorers who explored Central Mexico and conquered the Indian civilizations living there. • Hernan Cortes- Spanish explorer. Captured Tenochtitlan; defeated the Aztecs. • Moctezuma- Aztec ruler. Fought against Cortes. Originally invited Cortes into Tenochtitlan in an effort to intimidate. Questions to Consider • How did the spread of civilization begin in the Americas? • How did the ice age lead to the migration of people to the Americas? • What building style did the Mississippian culture take from Mexican culture? Questions to Consider • What were three common cultural characteristics shared by most Native Americans? • How did Europeans begin to explore more of the world? • What was the structure of European society during the 1400s? Questions to Consider • How did the Crusades help to expand Europe’s horizons? • Why were the Portuguese venturing into the Atlantic Ocean? • What was life like in West Africa before the age of European exploration? Questions to Consider • Why did West Africa become an important trade center? • What role did landownership hold in West African culture? • How did the Portuguese come into contact with West Africans? • How did European exploration affect the Americas? Questions to Consider • Why was Spain eager to find a new route across the Atlantic? • What was Columbus’s purpose in sailing west across the Atlantic? • What role did disease play in the defeat of the native populations of the Americas? • What was the Columbian Exchange? The BIG Question • How did the interaction of many cultures after 1492 affect the Americas?