Chapter 25 - Burnet Middle School

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Chapter Introduction
Section 1: Physical
Features
Section 2: Climate Regions
Visual Summary
Human-Environment
Interaction About 2 billion
people, or roughly one-third
of the world’s population, live
in the region of East Asia and
Southeast Asia. The region is
also one of the most densely
populated areas in the world.
What factors do you
think influence where
people live?
Section 1:
Physical Features
Physical processes shape
Earth’s surface. The
movement of Earth’s tectonic
plates helped shape the
landscape of East Asia and
Southeast Asia. Today, plate
movements cause
dangerous earthquakes and
volcanoes along the region’s
Pacific Rim.
Section 2:
Climate Regions
Geographic factors influence
where people settle. Some
areas in East Asia and
Southeast Asia have very dry
climates that support little
farming. The region also has
areas with plentiful rainfall and
rich soil. These agriculturally
productive areas are some of
the most populous places
on Earth.
Physical processes shape
Earth’s surface
Content Vocabulary
• archipelago
• gorge
• cordillera
• tungsten
• loess
• teak
Academic Vocabulary
• despite
• construct
Traveling on a river is part of life for
people in Laos. The Nam Song River is a
tributary of the mighty Mekong River that
runs through Southeast Asia. More than
60 million people depend on the river
system for food, water, and economic
survival. People are concerned, however,
that China’s plans to build dams along the
Mekong will hurt the region’s communities
and wildlife habitats. Read Section 1 to
learn more about the physical features of
East Asia and Southeast Asia.
What do you think most endangers
water supplies in your community?
A. Pollution
B. Global warming
C. Overuse
D. Don’t know
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
The Huang He (Yellow River) actually dried up in the
1990s before it could reach the sea. While China has
been building large new cities along the Huang He’s
shores in the hope of attracting business, industry, and
people, it has taken more and more water from the
river. Pollution has been massive. Global warming has
slowed the natural replenishment of the river. With so
many damaging variables combined, the river isn’t
quite the river it was.
The Land
Tectonic plate movements
have created mountains and
caused powerful earthquakes
in parts of the region.
The Land (cont.)
• East Asia and Southeast Asia extend from
the mountains of inland China westward to
the Pacific shores of Japan, and north to
south from the highlands of northeastern
China to the tropical islands of Indonesia.
The Land (cont.)
• East Asia occupies much of the Asian
continent south of Russia.
• China and Mongolia extend over most of
East Asia’s landmass.
• The other East Asian countries—North
Korea, South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan—
lie on peninsulas or islands.
The Land (cont.)
• Mountain ranges and highlands slice
through western East Asia.
– The tallest ranges here include the
Himalaya and the Kunlun Shan.
– Between these mountains is the vast
Plateau of Tibet, averaging about 15,000
feet (4,572 m) in elevation.
The Land (cont.)
• East of the mountains are East Asia’s only
major lowland areas—the North China
Plain and the Manchurian Plain.
• Narrow lowland areas also line the coasts
of the Korean Peninsula and Japan.
• Most of East Asia’s population lives on
these fertile lowland areas.
The Land (cont.)
• In the Pacific Ocean off East Asia’s coast
lies an arc of mountainous islands.
– These islands include Japan, which
forms an archipelago, or chain of
islands, and Taiwan off the coast of
southeastern China.
– Indonesia and the Philippines are also
archipelagoes.
The Land (cont.)
– East Asia’s islands are part of the Ring
of Fire, an area bordering the Pacific
Ocean where plate movements cause
many earthquakes and volcanic
eruptions.
The Land (cont.)
• From north to south, mainland Southeast
Asia is crossed by cordilleras, or
mountain ranges that run side by side.
– Fertile river plains and deltas separate
the ranges.
– These lowland areas are home to most
of mainland Southeast Asia’s people.
The Land (cont.)
• South and east of mainland Southeast
Asia are many mountainous islands which
form part of the Ring of Fire and hold
many active volcanoes.
• Despite their dangers, they provide rich
soil that supports agriculture.
The Land (cont.)
• The islands of Southeast Asia also face
challenges from earthquakes.
• An earthquake on the Indian Ocean floor
in 2004 caused a tsunami that washed
over the coastal lowlands of more than a
dozen countries, killing more than 300,000
people and destroying thousands of
homes and businesses.
Which country lies entirely on
Southeast Asia’s mainland?
A. Indonesia
B. Malaysia
C. Thailand
D. Philippines
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Seas and Rivers
Seas and rivers play an
important role in agriculture
and trade in the region.
Seas and Rivers (cont.)
• The most important rivers in East Asia flow
through China, beginning in the Plateau of
Tibet and flow eastward to the
Pacific Ocean.
• The Huang He (Yellow River) is northern
China’s major river system.
– This river carries tons of fine, yellowbrown soil called loess that blows in
from deserts in western China.
Seas and Rivers (cont.)
– When deposited, the rich soil—along
with the river’s water—makes the North
China Plain a major wheat-growing area.
– Throughout China’s history, the Huang
He has regularly flooded the land,
destroying homes and drowning many
people.
Seas and Rivers (cont.)
• China’s Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) is
Asia’s longest river, flowing about 3,400
miles through spectacular gorges and
broad plains until it empties into the ocean
at Shanghai.
– The Chang Jiang provides water for a
large farming area where more than half
of China’s rice and other grains grow.
– It is also an important trade route
allowing oceangoing ships and barges to
travel far upriver.
Seas and Rivers (cont.)
• The Chinese are constructing a the world’s
largest dam—the Three Gorges Dam—on
the Chang Jiang, intended to prevent
floods and supply a large amount of
hydroelectric power.
Seas and Rivers (cont.)
• Southeast Asia’s major rivers begin in
northern highlands and in southern China.
• Most of them flow southward toward the
Gulf of Thailand, which is an arm of the
South China Sea.
Seas and Rivers (cont.)
• Southeast Asia’s major rivers include the
Irrawaddy and the Salween in Myanmar
and the Chao Phraya in Thailand.
• The Mekong River begins in China and
empties into the South China Sea.
• Warm temperatures and heavy rains
make the Mekong region a fertile ricegrowing area.
Which river in East Asia carries
tons of fine, yellow-brown soil
called loess?
A. Huang He
B. Chang Jiang
C. Huang Jiang
D. Strait of Malacca
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
A Wealth of Natural Resources
The region’s valuable
resources support its growing
economies.
A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.)
• China, Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, and
Vietnam have rich oil reserves.
• Major coal producers are China,
Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea,
Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam.
A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.)
• China produces electricity from the Three
Gorges Dam on the Chang Jiang.
• Dams on Japan’s swift, short rivers provide
hydroelectric power for that country’s
cities, industries, and farms.
A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.)
• Indonesia, Malaysia, and China are
leading producers of tin.
• China has one of the largest iron ore
deposits in the world.
• North Korea, Vietnam, Malaysia,
Indonesia, and the Philippines also mine
iron ore.
A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.)
• Chromium, manganese, nickel, and
tungsten, which are used to make highquality steel, are found in China and the
Philippines.
• Tungsten is also used to make light bulbs
and rockets.
A Wealth of Natural Resources (cont.)
• Myanmar, Indonesia, and Thailand have
large quantities of teak wood, which is
used to make buildings and ships because
it is strong and durable.
• Mahogany from the Philippines is used in
wall paneling and high-quality furniture.
Which gem is harvested in Japan?
A. Diamonds
B. Pearls
C. Rubies
D. Sapphires
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Geographic factors influence where
people settle.
Content Vocabulary
• dzud
• landslide
Academic Vocabulary
• series
• site
The rafflesia is the largest––and
maybe the smelliest––flower in the
world. The rafflesia is a type of lily that
grows in the rain forests of Malaysia
and Indonesia. The flower measures
up to 3 feet (1 m) wide and gives off
the smell of rotting meat to attract flies
that pollinate it. Rafflesia and other
flowers in this region are used to make
lifesaving medicines. Read Section 2
to learn more about East Asia and
Southeast Asia’s climate
and vegetation.
Are there any similarities between the
climate zones of East Asia and the
climate where you live?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Maybe
D. Don’t know
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
In the middle of China’s Taklimakan Desert,
archaeologists have discovered a city they say is 2,200
years old. The most surprising feature is that practically
the whole city was built of wood from poplar trees. With
satellite technology, scientists can tell that the area
once had plenty of water and forests. They speculate
that the city died and the desert took over partly
because the people cut all the trees—what we today
call deforestation.
Effects on Climate
Wind patterns influence the
climates in East Asia and
Southeast Asia.
Effects on Climate (cont.)
• Winds, along with the region’s landforms,
shape the climates of East Asia and
Southeast Asia.
• In winter, cold Arctic winds sweep across
flat areas of Siberia and lower
temperatures in Mongolia and
northern China.
• The average January temperature around
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia’s capital, is about
–15°F (–26°C).
Effects on Climate (cont.)
• In the vast parts of the region that lie
below northern China, monsoon winds are
common.
• In the summer, warm, moist Pacific air
brings as much as 80 percent or more of
the region’s yearly rainfall.
• In the winter, dry winds blow outward from
the Asian continent to the ocean.
Effects on Climate (cont.)
• Areas of Southeast Asia that are closest to
the Equator have warm temperatures
year-round.
• Rain falls more evenly there throughout
the year.
Effects on Climate (cont.)
• Ocean currents also affect climate,
especially on islands such as Japan.
– A warm-water current flows north along
southeastern Japan, adding moisture to
the winter monsoon as it warms
the land.
– A cold current flows southwest along
Japan’s Pacific coasts, bringing
harsh, cold winters to Japan’s
northernmost areas.
Effects on Climate (cont.)
• The warm waters of the Tropics help form
strong, hurricane-like storms called
typhoons.
• Typhoons that arise in the Pacific can blow
across coastal East Asia, causing much
damage with their high winds, large
waves, and heavy rains.
What is a strong, hurricane-like storm
in the Pacific?
A. Monsoon
B. Typhoon
C. Tsunami
D. Earthquake
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Climate Zones
East Asia generally has
middle latitude climates like
those in the United States,
while Southeast Asia has
mostly tropical climates.
Climate Zones (cont.)
• The climate is dry in the northern and far
western parts of East Asia.
– In summer, dry continental air blows
across Asia from the west.
– In winter, cold Arctic air from the north
also carries little moisture.
Climates of East Asia and Southeast Asia
Climate Zones (cont.)
– In addition, monsoon winds from the
Pacific have released all their moisture
by the time they reach inland areas.
Climates of East Asia and Southeast Asia
Climate Zones (cont.)
• Most of Mongolia and northern China
receives only enough rain to create a
steppe climate that supports livestock with
extensive grasslands.
• Some years a small amount of rain falls,
and summers are dry.
• The weather pattern of a dry summer
followed by a harsh winter is called
a dzud.
Climate Zones (cont.)
• Mongolians fear dzud conditions because
dry summers decrease the available food
for their herds.
Climate Zones (cont.)
• Northeastern China, the northern part of
the Korean Peninsula, and northern Japan
have humid continental climates with warm
summers and cold winters.
• The rest of East Asia and the northern part
of Southeast Asia have a humid
subtropical climate.
Climate Zones (cont.)
• Much of Southeast Asia lies in the Tropics.
– It receives the direct rays of the sun in
the summer, making temperatures
very warm.
– In winter, warm air from the Equator
blows over the area, keeping
temperatures warm.
Climate Zones (cont.)
• Though sites, or locations, near the
Equator are generally warmer, sea
breezes help keep coastal temperatures
more moderate.
• Altitude also keeps temperatures low in
tropical areas.
• In the mountains that cross the islands of
Borneo and New Guinea, temperatures
can be quite cold.
Climate Zones (cont.)
• Rains can be heavy in the tropical rain
forest climate region.
• Parts of Indonesia receive as much as 120
inches (305 cm) per year.
• Large amounts of rain can fall in a single
day—as much as 28 inches (71 cm).
Climate Zones (cont.)
• Abundant rains support the growth of
tropical rain forests, home to a tremendous
variety of plants and animals.
• Malaysia’s rain forests alone contain more
than 14,000 species of flowering plants.
• Deforestation is taking the region’s rain
forests at a rapid rate.
• Thailand has lost nearly half of its forest in
less than 40 years.
Climate Zones (cont.)
• Deforestation has contributed to natural
disasters such as landslides.
– Landslides are when heavy rains soak
treeless hillsides.
– Soil is washed down the hills,
sometimes burying villages in mud and
killing villagers.
Climate Zones (cont.)
• Mountain areas in Indonesia and
southwestern China, including the
Himalaya and the Plateau of Tibet, have
highland climates.
– Temperatures in these areas tend to be
cool and drop even more in the
mountains.
– Because these areas receive dry
continental air, they tend to have dry
landscapes.
What type of climate do northeastern
China, the northern part of the
Korean Peninsula, and northern
Japan have?
A. Humid continental
0%
D
A
D. Tropical
0%
A
B
C0%
D
C
C. Dry continental
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
B. Humid subtropical
Landforms
• The region’s tallest
mountains lie in the
western parts of
East Asia.
• Most East Asians live
in coastal lowland plains.
• Southeast Asia includes a
mainland of peninsulas and
thousands of islands.
• Areas of East Asia and Southeast Asia lie along the
Ring of Fire and can experience volcanoes and
earthquakes.
Seas and Waterways
• Oceans and seas provide
important shipping routes as
well as supplies of fish for food.
• China’s major rivers—the
Huang He (Yellow) and the
Chiang Jiang (Yangtze)—
support farming but also
produce floods.
• The Chinese have built the
Three Gorges Dam on the
Chang Jiang to prevent
flooding and to provide
hydroelectric power.
Natural Resources
• Oil deposits are found
in China, Malaysia,
and Indonesia.
• China has iron ore
and coal deposits that
support its steel
industry.
• Southeast Asia’s
tropical rain forests
provide valuable
woods, such as teak
and mahogany.
Climates
• Three dominant air
masses affect climate in
much of East Asia and
Southeast Asia.
• Monsoons bring seasonal
rainy or dry conditions to
some parts of the region.
• Ocean currents affect
climate, especially on
islands such as those
of Japan.
archipelago
group of islands
cordillera
region of parallel mountain chains
loess
fine-grained fertile soil deposited by
the wind
gorge
like a canyon, a steep-sided valley
formed when a river cuts through land
that is being lifted upward
tungsten
metal combined with iron to make
steel, also used to make the filaments
in electric lightbulbs and parts of
rockets that must resist high amounts
of heat
teak
high-quality wood used to make
buildings and ships because it is
strong and durable
despite
in spite of
construct
to build
dzud
weather pattern in Mongolia in which
a harsh winter follows a dry summer
landslide
disaster that occurs when soil is
washed down steep hillsides due to
an earthquake or heavy rain
series
arranged in an order and alike in
some way
site
location
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