17.1

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Maritime Revolution Part 1
APWH 2014
AP Test
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Pacific Islands
• Settled by Polynesian mariners by
1300
• Evidence =
1.DNA evidence
2.Linguistic similarities
3.Transfer of indigenous plants
4.Settlements on Easter Island and
New Zealand
Madagascar
• Settled by Malayo-Indonesians and Polynesians
Indian Ocean
• Easiest and least
dangerous of all
oceans to navigate
because:
• monsoon winds
were predictable.
• Dhow very sturdy
vessel
Islam and Indian Ocean Trade
1. Muslim cities in Middle East created
a demand for exotic commodities
2. Muslim trade networks tied regions
together
3. Muslim traders shared a common
language, ethic and law
4. Islam was spread actively to distant
trading cities
Ming Empire in Indian Ocean
• Seven Imperial
fleets sent
between 1405 and
1433
• Treasure ships of
Zheng He carried
silk, metals and
other valuable gifts
for distant rulers
Zeng He Visits Africa
1. Zheng He extended
his voyages to
Africa
2. The voyages
stimulated the
Swahili silk market
3. At least 3 trading
cities in East Africa
sent delegations to
China in 1415
Zeng He Visits Africa
4. The Chinese began to
import more pepper
•Zheng He’s voyages
were discontinued in
1433
•Ming government
believed little could be
gained by exploring.
Atlantic Ocean
• Early Middle Ages
the Vikings were
the best mariners.
• Used knowledge of
the heavens and
seas to travel long
distances
Amerindians
• Natives from South
America traveled
up the Pacific
coast
• Amerindians called
the Arawaks
colonized the West
Indies (Caribbean)
Amerindians
• The Carib tribe by
the 15th century
had overrun most
of the Arawak
settlements
European Expansion
Portugal and
Spain
• The two nations
that began a
maritime
revolution that
would change the
course of world
history.
Motives for Iberian Expansion
•
•
•
•
•
Political
Economic
Religious
Intellectual
SPICE
Ferdinand of Aragon and
Isabel of Castille
• Their marriage
created Spain
• One of the most
powerful European
states in the 16th
century
Italian States
• Not interested in exploration
• Trading states of Venice and Genoa
preferred alliances with Muslim
traders for goods.
• Mediterranean ships were not built
for the open Atlantic
Portugal
• Early motivation
for exploration was
to gain access to
the sub-Saharan
gold trade.
• Explicit (Ultimate)
goal was to find a
passage to India
Henry the Navigator (13941460)
• Devoted his life to promoting exploration
• third son of King of Portugal organized
explorations of Southern Atlantic.
Main motives (goals):
• 1. Convert Africans to Christianity.
• 2. Make contact with Christian rulers in
Africa to establish alliances and crusade
against Muslim Ottoman Turks.
• 3. Discover profitable new lands.
Sagres Institute
• Research institute for
navigation founded by Henry
the Navigator
• Collected information on
southern Africa from location
across from North Africa.
• Learned from Italians about
trans-Saharan trade routes and
Jewish cartographers (map
makers)
• Created the most accurate sea
charts and maps of the time
period.
• Henry’s ships explored the
Atlantic and established colonies
on Madeira in 1418 and the
Azores in 1439.
Naval Technology
• Sagres Institute
studied and
improved
magnetic
compass
(Chinese)
• and astrolabe
(Arab/Greek)
Caravel
•
•
•
•
•
Fast
Maneuverable
Good fighting ship
Strong
1/5 size of large
European three-masted
square-riggers and
Chinese Junks.
• Size allowed exploration
of shallow coastal waters
and strong enough to
withstand ocean storms.
• Equipped with lateen
and square sails for
performance
• small cannon for
defense or offense.
• They were economical,
fast, agile and powerful.
• “The best ship that
sailed the seas” of the
period.
Caravel v. Square rigger
Lateen sails/astrolabe
Trade Winds
• After 1444, wind
currents were
discovered that blew in
a circular pattern.
• Explorers learned to
speedily return from
Africa by sailing
Northwest to ride the
westerly winds home.
• After 1444 knowledge
of trade winds allowed
faster trips home.
The Order of Christ
• Financed Henry’s
explorers until
voyages became
profitable.
• Military/religious order
founded 1318
• Received exclusive
rights to promote
Christianity in all new
lands discovered.
• *The reason
Portuguese ship sails
were marked with the
red crusaders’ cross.
Slavery
• 1440’s create first
financial profit for
Portuguese
• Captured Africans from
Canary Islands and
NW coast of Africa sold
to European and
Mediterranean traders.
• By 1500 number of
slaves captured or
purchased reached
80,000 and rose
steadily.
Cruzado
• New Portuguese gold
coin
• 1457 Gold trade
surpasses slavery
income in West Africa
through Sahara.
• Issued when Portugal
began making money
from Africa
• Showed link between
religious and secular
motives.
After Henry the Navigator:
• Private commercial
explorations provided
faster results for
Portugal
• Fernao Gomes- 1469
• Purchased the
privilege of exploring
350 mi. of new African
coast a year for five
years
• In return holds a
monopoly on trade he
developed there.
• Discovered Sao Tome
on the equator (would
become major sugar
source in 1500’s).
Gold Coast
• Explored by Gomes
• Would later become
the headquarters of
Portuguese West
African trade in gold
and slaves.
• The gold Guinea coin
starts to circulate
Locate
•
•
•
•
•
Portugal
Gold Coast
Canary Islands
Sagres
Guniea
Bartolomeu Diaz
• 1488
• First Portuguese
explorer to reach
southern tip of
Africa and see
Indian Ocean
• Bartholomew Diaz
Vasco da Gama
• 1497-1498
• Sailed around
Africa and became
first to reach India
• Vasco da Gama
link
Pedro Alvares Cabral
• 1500
• Discovered South
America while looking
for favorable wind
around tip of Africa.
• 80 years after Henry the
Navigator, exploration
was about to pay off big
for the Portuguese!
• Pedro Álvares Cabral
End
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