Healthy Lungs Our lungs are found inside our rib cage on either side of the heart. They are spongy and pink in colour and are made up of millions of air sacs. The lungs take oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. This is called gas exchange and happens at the air sacs. A rings of cartilage B windpipe A rings of cartilage B trachea C bronchus A rings of cartilage B trachea A rings of cartilage C bronchus D air sacs B trachea A rings of cartilage C bronchus D alveolus E rib muscles A rings of cartilage B trachea C bronchus D alveolus E intercostal muscles F diaphragm A B C D E F During inhalation, we breathe in . The muscles of the diaphragm and ribs contract During exhalation , we breathe out. The muscles of the diaphragm and ribs relax Breathing rate Our breathing rate is the number of breaths you take in one minute. Breathing rate will alter according to your size,sex age fitness or activity. 1.Vital Capacity This is the maximum volume of air you can breathe out after a deep breath. 2.Tidal Volume This is the normal volume of air in one breath. Both, allow us the measure the health of the lungs 3. Peak Flow This is measuring the maximum rate ( speed) at which air can be breathed out. Peak flow can be used to diagnose asthma. Exercise improves the efficiency of the lungs Activity 1 - Measuring Breathing Rate 1. Collect a stopclock and work with a partner 2. Time the number of breaths you take in one minute.(a breath in and out counts as 1 breath ) 3. Record this result. My breathing rate at rest is ______________. What would happen to your breathing rate after exercise ? Activity 2 – Measuring Vital Capacity and Tidal Volume 1. Collect a spirometer and disposable mouthpiece. 2. Your teacher will show you how to use the spirometer 3. Take 3 readings and work out the average. 4. Record this on your table 5. Measure your tidal volume 3 times and work out the average. Record this on your table. Measurement Vital Capacity Tidal Volume 1 st. 2 nd. 3 rd. Average (mls.) Cigarettes contain many harmful substances. The most harmful are tar,carbon monoxide and nicotine Carbon monoxide is a posionous gas found in cigarette smoke. It can be absorbed by your red blood cells , instead of oxygen. This starves your body of oxygen . Tar collects in the lungs and causes lung cancer. Nicotine is addictive like a drug making it very difficult for smokers to stop. Alcohol is made by the action of yeast on sugar solution. Different alcoholic drinks have a different percentage of alcohol. Drink % of alcohol Beer 4 cider 5 wine 11 whisky 40 brandy 40 rum 40 port 19 sherry 17 The effects of alcohol long term are harmful. Alcohol is a depressant drug and even in small amounts can slow down the brain. Alcohol causes : •Slow reactions • blurred vision •Impaired judgement •Lack of co-ordination Long term effects can be brain damage,strokes and liver disease. 1 unit of alcohol is equal to 15 mg./100ml. of blood The following measures contain 1 unit of alcohol : Glass of wine ½ pint of beer ¼ gill of whiskey or any other spirit Glass of sherry or port It takes the liver an hour per unit drunk to breakdown the alcohol in the blood.