taysir & rahma - Lewiston School District

By: Rahma Ibrahim &
Taysir Mohamed
Who Where They?
 In 1957, a group of African American students
were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School
as an outcome of the Brown V. Board of
 The Brown V. Board of Education declared
segregated schools unconstitutional and it called
for the desegregation of the schools throughout
the nations.
“Little Rock Nine”
 The National Association
for the Advancement of
Colored People (NAACP)
tried to register African
American students into
Southern school and the
Little Rock School Board
 The NAACP registered
nine black students into
the previously all white
 The Little Rock Nine
became their nickname.
Erenest Green
 First black student to
graduate from Little Rock
Central High School.
 Graduated from Michigan
State University and served as
Assistant Secretary of
Housing and Urban Affairs
under President Jimmy
 He is currently a managing
partner and Vice President of
Lehman Brothers in
Washington D.C.
Elizabeth Eckford
 Still living in Little Rock,
 She made a career of the U.S
Army which included work
as a Journalist.
 She currently works as a social
worker and is a mother of two
Jefferson Thomas
 He graduated from Little Rock Central High
School in 1960.
 He had to return for his senior year because
Little Rock Central High School was closed for a
year by the legislature to prevent desegregation.
 He is currently an accountant with the U.S.
Department of Defense and lives in Anaheim,
Terrence Roberts
 His family moved to Los
Angeles, California a year
after the historic event at
Little Rock.
 He graduated High School
and earned a doctorate
degree in teaching.
 He is currently teaching at
the University of California
and is a clinical psychologist.
Carlotta Lanier
 She was one of the three nine who
eventually graduated from High
 She along with Jefferson Thomas
returned for their senior year in
 She eventually graduated from
Michigan State University and is
currently living in Englewood,
Colorado where she is in real estate.
Minnijean Trickey
 She was expelled from Little Rock
Central High School because of
several incidents against her
 She moved with her husband to
Canada during the Vietnam War and
is currently a writer and social
worker in Ontario.
Gloria Karlmark
 She graduated from Illinois
Technical College and
received a post-graduate
degree in Stockholm,
 She was also a prolific
computer science writer and
successfully published
magazines in 39 countries.
 She is now retired and has
homes in Amsterdam, The
Netherlands, and Stockholm.
Thelma Mothershed-Wair
 Because Little Rock High closed for
one year, Thelma had to attend
summer school and corresponding
course in order to graduate.
 She earned an undergraduate and
master’s degree from the Southern
Illinois University.
 She eventually graduated from
college and made a career in
 She is currently living in Belleville,
Illinois and is a volunteer in a
program for abused women.
Melba Beals
 She completed her senior year at
Montgomery High School after
Little Rock High closed down for
one year.
 She then attended San Francisco
State University and graduated
with a bachelors degree.
 She is currently an author and
former journalist for People
Magazine and NBC.
 She lives in San Francisco,
Controversy Throughout The Country
 The controversy was that the government “had no
idea it was as terrible as that”. Segregation became so
bad that the only branch of government willing to deal
with it was the Supreme Court specifically Chief
Justice Earl Warren.
 Little Rock Nine took Brown vs. Board of Education
from theory into action when it finally forced the
government to take action against segregation in
public schools.
Arkansas’s Reaction
 Arkansas was one of two Southern states to announce it
would begin immediately to take steps to comply with the
Brown decision.
 Lower courts judged the 1957 desegregation date to be in
line with the Supreme Court's ruling and denied
admittance to the students.
 Governor Orval Faubuf was against desegregation.
 A small white minority and a large black majority
(NAACP) wanted desegertation in Arkansas, however the
majority of the white including the governor were against
desegregation forcing the Federal Government to take
The Federal Governments Reaction
 President Eisenhower remained reluctant to promote
desegregation. He didn’t use his vast popularity and prestige
of his office to educate white Americans about the need for
racial justice.
His personal attitude held him back; he grew up in an all
white town, spent his career in a segregated army.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower, as the chief law
enforcement officer of the United States, knew it was vital to
uphold the Constitution and the laws, but he also wanted to
avoid a confrontation in Arkansas.
With Executive Order 10730, the President placed the
Arkansas National Guard under Federal control.
He also sent 1,000 U.S. Army paratroopers from the 101st
Airborne Division to assist them in restoring order in Little
Impact on Society
 It was the first time the federal government took
actual steps toward insegregation.
 The National Government indirectly backed up black
groups and organizations such as the NAACP and the
 It forced the white population to recognize the need
for racial justice.
 Pictures
 http://www.jnpa.com/DSN/wwwjnpacom/Content/Images/Little-Rockmain.jpg
 http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/images/E.GREEN.jpg
 http://27.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_kuetumsTo31qzf0iio1_500.jpg
 http://www.heritagecc.info/westervillemlk/Photos/2009MLK/Thomas.JPG
 http://kellylowenstein.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/terrence-roberts.jpg
 http://www.cogreatwomen.org/images/lanier.jpg
 http://sojournproject.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/hs-minnijean-browntricke.jpg
 http://photos.state.gov/libraries/usinfo-photo/39/week_4_0807/082407-gray200.jpg
 http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_ca81gFhIxKQ/S1FSTtoKw1I/AAAAAAAAABk/asb7z