Volume 1, Chapter 2 The profitability of sports teams: international perspectives 1 2 Profits in north America vs Europe Teams in North America do NOT want to appear too profitable Antitrust suits Teams in Europe fortunate if they make any profit In English Premier League 1993-2004, correlation coefficients Team salary and team revenues: 0.927 Team revenues and team operating profits: 0.347 Increase in team revenues go to team salary 3 Profits in north America vs Europe Difference in club objectives Different incentives NA: closed league structure Europe: promotion/relegation Regulation of player labor markets NA: toward profits Europe: not-for-profit organizations NA: close regulation Europe: lack of control Support from local authorities NA: subsidize sports stadia Europe: subsidize team’s wage bill, e.g. Real Madrid and Barcelona in Spain 4 Official numbers less than estimated by Forbes: 1. Cross-subsidizing other parts of their groups 2. Transferring costs from parent companies to teams 5 6 7 Financial crisis in English soccer Premier League: 20 teams 72 in other 3 divisions (English Football League) Widening disparities of revenue growth by division Tendency for revenue growth Growth of wage bill Lack of profitability in lower divisions Very few clubs folded due to financial deficits (last in 1962) Teams in debt were sold to new owners at low prices but agree to take on the debt 8 9 10 11 12 13 Financial crisis in European Football Football began economic boom in 1990s 4-year TV contract to BskyB L647M in 1997, L1.6B to BskyB in 2002 by Premier League Only very few teams benefit Many teams in financial crisis ITV Digital TV signed L315M with English Football League (bottom 3 divisions, 72 teams) in 2000 Pay-per-view in Great Britain ITV bankrupt in 2002, court ruled ITV not responsible for remaining ~L200M TV ratings remarkably low (few thousands viewers) 14 Financial crisis in English soccer Largest debts for teams in Championship League Teams aim for PL The tier just below Premier League, average attendance ~17000 in 2010-11 Clubs already spent the money on debts, buying new players, ground improvement Compete for players of moderate quality Higher revenue from TV, gates, sponsorship, merchandise,… Parachute payments: demoted teams receive a share of PL broadcast income for 2 seasons following relegation Market size fundamental determinant of league standings Despite promotion/relegation 15 Lessons learned Player contracts shorter in length, more performance based Automatically lower salary after relegation Points deduction to deter clubs from entering administration (bankrupt) Revenue in Top Division of European Soccer Teams 2011/12 Deloitte Annual Review of Football Finance, 2013 16 Total Wages and Ratio to Revenue in Top Division Deloitte Annual Review of Football Finance, 2013 17 Average Match Attendance in Top Division Deloitte Annual Review of Football Finance, 2013 18 Attendance and Sources of Revenue in Premier League Deloitte Annual Review of Football Finance, 2013 19 TV Revenue Sharing in European Soccer Premier League only shared within the league Italy’s Serie A teams do not share broadcast revenue with each other Juventus, AC Milan revenue 10X of other teams Many teams keep financially afloat by developing talented young players and then selling their rights to wealthier teams Financial Danger of Open System 2007/08- 2011/12 only the Bundesliga (€190m) and Premier League (€121m) were the only ‘big five’ leagues to generate an operating profit before player trading and finance costs Large Differences in Revenue and Market Values in European Soccer Manchester United, Real Madrid, AC Milan have operating income and market values similar to Washington Redskins and NY Yankees 900-1300 M in market value Sales of brand-name soccer merchandise > 3 B NFL 2.5B, MLB 2.3B, NASCAR 1.2B, NBA 1B, NHL 900M, in 2001 Value of FC Porto of Portugal, 25th valuable soccer team in world: market value 106 M Similar to least valuable NHL teams Market for broadcast rights North America vs Europe NA: networks + cable + satellite + internet… Europe: a single company by sealed-bid auction BSkyB (Sky Sports) in England Now BSkyB + ESPN BSkyB: use sports broadcasting to increase customer subscription package Several European broadcasters merged or bankrupt greater concentration of sports provision among fewer remaining companies Italian Serie A and Serie B to create league channel in 2013, more competition for broadcaster 24 Market for broadcast rights North America vs Europe TV revenues not equally shared in Europe In PL: equally fixed share, fee for each live broadcast, prize money based on standings Big clubs (MU, Chelsea…) receive much greater broadcast revenues than smaller clubs Individual vs collective selling of broadcasting rights, arguments: Individual would raise profits for individual clubs because more games should be shown Collective would raise total league profits and effective distribution 20% increase in broadcasting fees in 2010-11 in Italian Serie A after collective selling 25 Market for players North America vs Europe NA: player unions, but more regulated Europe: player unions may only influence pension plans and insurance for injury Entry draft, restrictions on FA No entry draft, FA for all players after contract Trade players for cash, rather than for players/draft picks Incentives to overpay players in promotion/relegation system Playoff systems that give mid-table teams chance of promotion 4th place in PL qualify for UEFA Champion’s League 26 Market for players North America vs Europe Teams spend their surpluses from ordinary players on superstars who extract all available rents Big clubs, the only ones who can afford superstars, make less profits by high payments to superstarts Hidden monopsony rent, suited for Barcelona, Real Madrid, Inter Milan… 27 28 Conclusions Team profits Revenue opportunities, especially concessions, merchandise, sponsorship NA: team revenues convert into team profitability Europe: this connection not exist Not maximized in Europe Greater commercial expertise gradually being introduced into Europe Costs High growth of player salaries in Europe Leagues should reinforce their attempts to construct offsetting incentives Penalties for overspending? Salary cap?