chapter 5 notes

Chapter 5
Reading Guide Review
An Industrial Nation
Sand Creek Massacre-the killing of about 150
Cheyenne by the U.S. Army
Battle of Little Bighorn-battle between the Sioux
and the U.S. cavalry; the last victory for the Sioux
Sitting Bull-Sioux leader at the Battle of Little
George Armstrong Custer-U.S. cavalry commander
at the Battle of Little Bighorn
Wounded Knee Massacre-the killing of about 300
Sioux men, women and children by Army troops
Chief Joseph-Nez Perce leader who tried to flee to
Canada with his people
Geronimo-Apache leader who led many raids on
the Arizona-Mexico border
Dawes Act-law that broke up some reservations
and divided the land among individuals
Chisholm Trail-cattle trail that began in San
Antonio and ended in Kansas
Homestead Act-law allowing any head of
household over age 21 to claim 160 acres of land
1. Why did Native Americans believe that land should
not be bought and sold?
• buffalo centered lives
• Buffalo migrated
• food, clothing, shelter, weapons and tools.
• free to move with buffalo
• Nat. Ams believed no man owned the land but
was for everyone’s use.
2. What were names the two massacres of Native
• The Sand Creek Massacre
• Wounded Knee Massacre
3. What was the Dawes Act?
• The Dawes Act - 1887 broke up Indian reservations
and sold the land.
• government sold the best land and gave the rest to
the Indians.
4. How many acres of land could the head of a
family claim under the Homestead Act?
160 acres
5. Who did the settlers on the Great Plains learn
irrigation techniques from?
Hispanic and Native American farmers
I. Conflicts with Native Americans
• Govt. seized lands & forced them onto
• Goal of govt. - break up Nat. Ams’ power and
open up their lands for settlement
• Nat. Ams fought back
• Expansion vs. survival of their lifestyle
I. Conflicts with Native Americans cont.
• Americanization - force Nat Ams to give up
their way of life and language
• The Dawes Act = Americanization
• Geronimo and the Apaches left the
reservation and began raiding settlements
II. Mining and Ranching
• mining camps into towns = overnight success
aka Boom Towns
• Denver Colorado = Boom Town
• Jobs
– Large-scale mining
– Cattle ranching
• sheep owners vs. cattle owners competed for
grazing lands on the open range
• barbed wire led to
• fencing in animals and ended open range
III. Farmers on the Great Plains (Out West)
• Land available
• Conditions harsh
• water scarce
• New technologies helped
• eastern markets by Railroads
• RR trx made time zones
• Homestead Act boomed settlement
III. Farmers on the Great Plains cont.
• African Americans moved to escape
Black Codes &Ku Klux Klan
• Exodusters
– Af. Ams to Kansas for free land to former slaves
• Known as the great land rush
– White
– Black
– European
– Chinese
As native Americans gradually lost their battle for their
lands in the West, settlers brought in new enterprises such
as :
mining, ranching, and farming.
Section 2: The Second Industrial Revolution
Entrepreneur-risk taker who starts a new business
Capitalism-economic system in which most
businesses are privately owned
Laissez-faire-type of capitalism in which
government does not interfere with business
Social Darwinism-belief that people in society
compete for survival; the stronger people,
businesses, and nations succeed and weaker ones
John D. Rockefeller-business leader who made a
fortune in oil
Andrew Carnegie-business leader who made a
fortune in steel
Cornelius Vanderbilt-business leader who made a
fortune in railroads
George Pullman-business leader who made a
fortune by designing and building sleeper cars for
rail travel
Sherman Antitrust Act-law that made it illegal to
form trusts that interfered with free trade; its goal
was to limit the power of corporations.
Thomas Alva Edison-inventor of hundreds of useful
Samuel Morse invented the telegraph; Morse code
Boston was the home to the nation’s first subway
1. What made producing steel faster and cheaper
during the Second Industrial Revolution?
A new process of producing steel called the Bessemer
2. How did the railroads affect settlement
of the West?
• Cut travel time from months to days.
• Railroads = towns.
• RR also promoted trade & jobs.
• time zones.
3. What is capitalism?
A system where most businesses are privately owned.
4. What poor conditions led workers to form unions?
• Child labor
• Long hours
• Unhealthy conditions
• Low pay
5. Name some new inventions from this time period.
•Phonograph (record player)
•Motion picture camera and projector
Industry and Railroads
Factories with steel = more production
The Bessemer process
Chinese Immigrants came to U.S. to work on the RR
and find gold
The Chinese Exclusion Act
• ended Chinese immigration for 10 years
II. The Rise of Big Business
• Entrepreneurs
•risk $$$
•fierce competition in the market
• Corporation• business with the legal status of an individual.
•owned by people who buy stock
• board of directors make decisions.
• Competition led corp.’s to form trusts (merged
• A board of trustees ran the companies like a
single corporation
Rockefeller dominated the oil business (richest
American Ever.
Carnegie dominated the steel business
Chart Title
peak while alive
translated to 2014
Coach Taylor
Micheal Jordan
Chart Title
peak while alive
translated to 2014
Coach Taylor
Micheal Jordan
II. The Rise of Big Business cont.
• Department stores
•Many goods found at one store
•Rockefeller and Carnegie called “robber barons” b/c of
their ruthless competitiveness
Social Darwinism
• only the strong survive in business
• POV #1....Poor are poor b/c they are
• POV #2....Poor stay poor b/c of rich
people manipulation.
III. Workers Organize
low wages
long hours
unsafe working conditions
no benefits
• The Knights of Labor were the largest and one of the
most important American labor organizations of the
goals of the Knights of Labor
• were eight-hour workdays,
• end of child labor
• equal pay for equal work
IV. Advances in Transportation and Communication
• Communication: telegraphs, telephones, and typewriters
•Transportation: Streetcars, subways, automobiles
•The growth of cities led to mass transit systems
•The nation’s first subway system was in Boston
Assembly Lines made mass
production possible
Monopolies – one company gains complete control over an
Monopolies make corporations become
very powerful.
• Drive up prices
In 1890, The Sherman Antitrust Act
made it illegal to form trusts that
interfered with free trade.
Robber Barons vs. Captains of Industry?
Destroyed competitors with tough tactics?
Use their business skills to strengthen the economy?
• Oil makes gasoline and
• The new technology
needed petro.
• by the 1900 it was the
most valuable commodity
During the late 1800s, new technology and inventions
led to the growth of
Industry, the rise of big business, and revolutions in
transportation and communication.
Life at the Turn of the Century
Section 3
Ellis Island- opened
in 1892 in New York
for European Immigrants
Tenement-rundown apartment building
Settlement house-place where volunteers offered
immigrants services such as language lessons and
job training
Jane Addams-co-founder of Hull House, one of the
first American settlement houses
Social gospel-idea that faith should be shown
through good acts
Populist Party-political party that stood for
farmers, labor leaders, and reformers against big
business leaders
The Interstate Commerce Act was passed to
regulate railroads
Jim Crow laws-laws that created and enforced
separation of African Americans and whites in
public places
Lynching-murder of an individual by a group or
Booker T. Washington-civil rights leader who
believed that African Americans should focus on
farming and other useful skills to improve their
W.E.B. Du Bois-civil rights leader who believed that
African Americans should push for full rights
How many immigrants came to the US
between 1880-1910? (Old Immigrants)
about 18 million
2. What hardships did immigrants face?
•Difficult living conditions – tenements
•Low paying jobs
3. Where could immigrants go for help? Explain.
They could go to Settlement Houses. These
offered services to immigrants such as language classes and job
Jane Addams – founded Hull House, a settlement house
where immigrants could go for help
4. What did the Populist Party want?
wanted political reform which
• bank regulation
• gov. ownership of railroads
• unlimited coinage of silver to
back money.
5. What are the names of two influential Civil Rights
Booker T.
W.E.B. Du bois
Angel Island opened in 1910 in California for Asian
Immigrants (New Immigrants)
Many Chinese immigrants came to California to
find gold.
A new wave of immigrants came to America in the late
1800s and settled in rapidly changing
cities, where corruption and discrimination were
Westward Expansion Rap