America Expands Read Textbook Chapters

U.S. History Review
Beginnings to 1880
The Beginnings
The 13 British Colonies
The Revolutionary War
Slavery in America
Slavery in America
Slavery in America
Civil War
Civil War
Civil War
Civil War
“In 1776 the American people had brought
forth upon this continent a new nation
conceived in liberty and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal.
This nation shall now have a new birth of
freedom; and that government of the people,
by the people, for the people shall
not perish from the earth.”
- President Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
Civil War
U.S. History
Unit 1:
America Expands and Progresses
America grew as it pushed westward, by
expanding its borders, economy, and reform
movements but also conflicting with Native
The Movement West Begins
A. 1803 - The Louisiana Purchase
1. Lewis and Clark explore the
new territory
2. Native Americans are “in the way”
3. 1830 - The Indian Removal Act
a) Some Indians were forced
to move to “Indian Territory.”
B. Manifest Destiny
1. the belief that America’s borders
should stretch from ocean to ocean
C. 1849 - The Gold Rush to California
II .The Transcontinental Railroad
A. Railroads Before the Civil War
1. efficient way to transport supplies/people
2. stopped at the Missouri River
B. 1862 – Transcontinental Railroad Project Begins
1. Two companies would build the railroad
a) Union Pacific (UP) – building West
b) Central Pacific (CP)– building East.
2. Railroad Workers
a) UP --mostly Irish immigrants
b) CP -- mostly Chinese immigrants
3. 1869 – Two sides meet in Promentary Point,
III. Settlers Move West
A.U.S. Gov’t Encourages Expansion
1.Homestead Act of 1862
a) offered 160 acres of gov’t
land for $10
b) after living on the land for 5 years, the
settlers could claim ownership
2.By 1900, 80 million acres were bought by
B. Settlers could enjoy gold, farming and ranching
opportunities, and “the free, frontier life”
New Settlers view of the land:
“To open the greatest number of mines and extract
the greatest quantity of ore, to scatter cattle over
a thousand hills, to turn the flowering prairies
into wheatfields, to force from nature the most
she can be made to yield . . .is preached by
Western newspapers as a kind of religion.”
--James Bryce after visiting
the American West
Native American view of the land:
“The ground says, The Great Spirit has
placed me here to produce all that grows
on me, trees and fruit. The same way the
ground says, It was from me man was
made. The Great Spirit, in placing men on
the earth, desired them to take good care
of the ground and to do each other no
--Young Chief of the Cayuse Tribe
Gold Mine,
Lead, SD
IV. Conflict with the Native Americans (NA’s)
1865 -- the West swarmed with new settlers
1. New settlers felt justified in taking land
2. white ways could produce more food,
B. Battles ensued
1. 1876 -- U.S. gov’t forcibly took land from the
Apache, Navajo, and Cheyenne
2. Surviving NA’s were placed on reservations
Minnesota’s Current
American Indian
C. Gold Discovered in Black Hills, SD
1.Black Hills Sioux were hostile to gold miners
2.Fort Laramie Treaty
a) NA’s wouldn’t harass gold
b)gold miners wouldn’t live in BHills
c)miners started settling in BHills
D. 1876 -- The Battle of Little Big Horn
1. U.S. Gov’t - upset w/ Sioux hostility to settlers
2. The Sioux of SD + Montana led by Chief Sitting
Bull vs. Gen. George Custer and U.S. Army
3. Custer and all his men are killed = “Custer’s
Last Stand”
4. one of very few NA victories
E. 1890 -- The Massacre at Wounded Knee
1. over 200 unarmed Sioux are killed near Wounded
Knee creek in SD
2. U.S. soldiers force Sioux onto BHills reservation –
Pine Ridge
3. Considered to be the last of the prairie NA battles
F. 1973 – AIM “American Indian Movement” Rally at
Wounded Knee in SD
1. Protest turned violent, killing 2 protesters
V. Late 1800’s -- Advances in Transportation and
A. Transportation
1. 1830 Streetcars
2. 1893 Automobiles – “horseless carriages”
3. 1897 Subways – Boston
4. 1903 Airplanes – Wright Bros.
B. Communication
1. 1837 Telegraph – Samuel Morse
2. 1867 Typewriter – Chris L. Sholes 1867
3. 1876 Telephone – Alexander G. Bell
C. 1847-1931 Thomas Edison
1. Electric lightbulb
2. Over 1,000 U.S. Patents
VI. The Rise of Big Business
A. Capitalism – America’s economic system
1. competition brings both success and failure
2. worker motivation is high
3. Social Darwinism – the belief in natural selection
“survival of the fittest”
4. laissez-faire – no gov’t intervention into the
B. Tycoons emerge
1. John D. Rockefeller – controlled 90% of oil
2. Andrew Carnegie – dominated the steel industry
3. monopolies and trusts become problematic
4. philanthropy–using wealth to give back to society
VII. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
A. Women’s blouse factory in NY
1. 500+ young women employees, many immigrants
a) worked long hours- 6 days/week
2. fire erupted on 8th floor
3. many exit doors locked
4. almost 150 died
B. The impact
1. shows the dark-side of capitalism
2. became a turning point for improving working
VIII. Labor Unions Develop
A. Industrial working conditions = “Sweatshops”
1) labor made up of mostly
immigrants and children
2) 10 hrs a day, 6 days a week
B. “Labor Unions” develop = Workers unite for
1) Collective bargaining
2) Strikes, walkouts
IX. The Progressive Era
A. Progressives were concerned with:
1. capitalism – too harsh, too unfair
a) 1890 – 10% of pop held 75% of wealth
2. unemployment, working conditions
B. Progressives believed: gov’t was the answer!
1. Gov’t must play a larger role in:
a) protecting people from harsh realities of
2. “Muckrakers” – Progressives’ name for
journalists who “raked up” abuses or problems in
a) “The Jungle” by Upton Sinclair –
“raked up” meat packing plants
b) yellow journalism – sensationalized news
Excerpt from The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
There was no heat upon the killing-floor. The men might as well have
worked out of doors all winter. For that matter, there was very little heat
anywhere in the building…..On the killing-floor you might easily freeze.
You were apt to be covered with blood, and it would freeze solid; if you
leaned against a pillar you would freeze to that, and if you put your
hand upon the blade of your knife, you would run a chance of leaving
your skin on it. The men would tie up their feet in newspapers and old
sacks, and these would be soaked in blood and frozen, and then
soaked again, and so on until by night time a man would be walking on
great lumps the size of feet of an elephant. Now and then, when the
bosses were not looking, you would see them plunging their feet and
ankles into the steaming hot carcass of the steer, or darting across the
room to the hot-water jets. The cruelest thing of all was that nearly all
of them—all of those who used knives—were unable to wear gloves,
and their arms would be white with frost and their hands would grow
numb, and then of course there would be accidents. Also the air would
be full of steam, from the hot water and the hot blood, so that you
could not see five feet before you; then, with men rushing about at the
speed they kept up on the killing-floor, and all with butcherknives, like
razors, in their hands—well, it was to be counted as a wonder that there
were not more men slaughtered than cattle.
X. Progressive Era Amendments
1. 17th A – direct election of senators
2. 18th A – Prohibition of alcohol lasted from 1919 to 1933
3. 19th A – Women’s Suffrage 1920
“The so-called woman movement is an attempt to escape the function of
a woman. It is an escape from the fact that a woman is not a man. It is
a rising against nature. It is a revolt against God.”
- Dr. Cyrus Brady from a sermon given on Oct. 17, 1915
“These things that women want to do and be and have are not in any
sense masculine. They do not belong to men. They never did.”
- Charlotte Perkins Gilman
XI. Immigration Increases early 1900’s
A. Old Immigrants before 1880
1. from N or W Europe
2. Push-Pull Factors
3. Nativists – Americans
opposed to immigration
B. New Immigrants b/t 1880-1910
1. from S or E Europe
2. 1892 Ellis Island
a) immigration station in NY
b) 112 million immigrants passed
through in 62 years
c) health checks
d) 50% of all Americans today come
from an Ellis Island immigrant