SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES 7.2 OBJECTIVES Analyze why industrialization took root in the northern part of the United States. Describe the impact of industrialization on the northern life. Analyze the reason that agriculture and slavery became entrenched in the South. KEY PARTS The North Embraces Industry Social Change In the North Southern Agricultural Economy and Society INTRODUCTION Read Section 7.2 Create a Venn diagram as shown on pg. 233 and compare and contrast the North and the South. THE NORTH EMBRACES VICTORY The embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 cut off access to the British manufactured goods; thus the Americans began building their own factories to meet the needs of the citizens. Congress imposed the Tariff of 1816 on imported goods, this would stimulate growth of American Industry. The tariff increased the price of imported goods by an average of 20 to 25 percent. SOCIAL CHANGE IN THE NORTH Factories hurt highly skilled artisans such as blacksmiths, shoemakers, and tailors because of the low cost laborers. The artisans worked to organize labor unionsgroups of workers who unite to seek better pay and conditions. Labor unions were ineffective during the early 1800s. MIDDLE CLASS EMERGES Industrialization hurt some working Americans but helped others and created a middle class of Americans. Higher than the laborers but lower than the wealthy business owners. These were typically bankers, accountants, clerks, auctioneers, brokers and retailers. They typically moved out of the cities into suburban areas. EMIGRATION FROM IRELAND AND GERMANY There was a surge of immigrants in the 1830s and 1840s. Roughly 4.9 million immigrants by 1850 came to America from Ireland and Germany. The big push was due to political upheaval in Germany and a huge famine in Ireland. Most were Catholic and worked on the docks and ports in the North. CONT. By 1860 immigrants comprised more than 40 percent of the population in New York City. The immigrants caused issues in America because of their faith, hostility towards African Americans, and competed for jobs. Most of the immigrants lived in slums in the cities. SOUTHERN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY Cotton became the South’s leading crop. From 5 million lbs in 1793 to 170 million lbs in 1820. This surge of cotton growth increased the importance and need of slavery in the South. By 1840 the South produced 60 percent of the cotton used by the United States and Great Britain. Number of slaves went up to 4 million in 1860 from only 1.5 million in 1820. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES The South became too dependent on cotton to make profit. Most years it paid off but some years cotton prices dropped and caused several plantations to go under. Also their spread out population hurt their urban growth along with the general lack of education in the South. Only one fourth of the white men in the South owned slaves and the ones who did had fewer than ten slaves. There were only about 3,000 men that had 100 or more slaves.