Ch 19: A World in Flames 19311941
Section 1: America and the World
Fascism in Italy
• Promoted by
Benito Mussolini
– Soldier in WWI
• Believed:
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that the nation is more important than the individual
in the need of a dictator for order
Expanding territory for strength
Expanding the military
Anti-communism
Mussolini
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•
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•
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•
Protected private property
Helped the middle class
Employed the working class
Gave out social security
Used pride to get to the top
Set up a dictatorship/got rid of democracy
Communists of Russia
• Took over after WWI under Vladimir Lenin
• Renamed Russia USSR (Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics)
• One party ruled the gov’t
• Ignored personal freedom
• Punished enemies of the state
Joseph Stalin
• Took over in the USSR in 1926
• Increased factory production
• Killed all those against his agenda
– 8-10 million people were murdered
Nazi Party of Germany
• National Socialist
German Workers’ Party
• Nationalistic
• Anti-communist
• Hated the Allies from WWI for how the
Germans were treated/had to take the blame
• WAS NOT STARTED BY HITLER
• Was voted into power during the Depression
Adolf Hitler
• Admired Mussolini
• Arrested in 1923 after
trying to overthrow the gov’t
• Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
– Wanted to unify the Germans
– Wanted more land-take over Poland/Russia
– Blamed Jews for Germany’s loss in WWI
Hitler’s Rise to Power
• 1933: appointed prime minister of Germany
– Gave orders for police to intimidate voters
• 1934: became president
– Took the title of fuhrer “leader”
• 1935: started building up the military
– Violation of the Treaty of Versailles
Militarism in Japan
• 1920s-Japan was run
by businesses
– Depression limited growth
– Rise in unemployment
• 1930s-Japanese officers wanted to expand
Japan’s greatness to takeover China
– Invaded China without gov’t permission
– Killed Japan’s prime minister
– Took over gov’t positions
America Wants Isolation
• Stay out of the war because:
– European countries were not repaying WWI debts
– Believed U.S. was tricked into WWI by gun
companies
• Neutrality Act of 1935:
– Made it illegal for the U.S. to sell arms to any
country at war
Germany, Italy, and Japan Become
Allies in 1936
• Hitler pledged to help Mussolini during the
Spanish Civil War (Rome-Berlin Axis)
• Anti-Comintern Pact:
– Japan became allies to Germany and Italy in
exchange of information about communist groups
• Became known as the Axis powers in 1940
Neutrality Act of 1937
• Allowed countries at war to buy non-military
goods from the U.S.
• The countries had to pay cash for the goods
and had to send ships to pick up the supplies
• U.S. wanted to prevent another Lusitania
Incident
Roosevelt’s Ideas
• Wanted to end the Depression
• Didn’t like isolationism (believes it will lead to
war)
• Supported internationalism:
– Trade between nations creates prosperity and
helps to prevent war
• Will send military supplies to China to fight
Japan (non-war effort since Japanese gov’t
didn’t declare war)