Ch 19: A World in Flames 19311941
Section 1: America and the World
Fascism in Italy
• Promoted by
Benito Mussolini
– Soldier in WWI
• Believed:
that the nation is more important than the individual
in the need of a dictator for order
Expanding territory for strength
Expanding the military
Protected private property
Helped the middle class
Employed the working class
Gave out social security
Used pride to get to the top
Set up a dictatorship/got rid of democracy
Communists of Russia
• Took over after WWI under Vladimir Lenin
• Renamed Russia USSR (Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics)
• One party ruled the gov’t
• Ignored personal freedom
• Punished enemies of the state
Joseph Stalin
• Took over in the USSR in 1926
• Increased factory production
• Killed all those against his agenda
– 8-10 million people were murdered
Nazi Party of Germany
• National Socialist
German Workers’ Party
• Nationalistic
• Anti-communist
• Hated the Allies from WWI for how the
Germans were treated/had to take the blame
• Was voted into power during the Depression
Adolf Hitler
• Admired Mussolini
• Arrested in 1923 after
trying to overthrow the gov’t
• Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
– Wanted to unify the Germans
– Wanted more land-take over Poland/Russia
– Blamed Jews for Germany’s loss in WWI
Hitler’s Rise to Power
• 1933: appointed prime minister of Germany
– Gave orders for police to intimidate voters
• 1934: became president
– Took the title of fuhrer “leader”
• 1935: started building up the military
– Violation of the Treaty of Versailles
Militarism in Japan
• 1920s-Japan was run
by businesses
– Depression limited growth
– Rise in unemployment
• 1930s-Japanese officers wanted to expand
Japan’s greatness to takeover China
– Invaded China without gov’t permission
– Killed Japan’s prime minister
– Took over gov’t positions
America Wants Isolation
• Stay out of the war because:
– European countries were not repaying WWI debts
– Believed U.S. was tricked into WWI by gun
• Neutrality Act of 1935:
– Made it illegal for the U.S. to sell arms to any
country at war
Germany, Italy, and Japan Become
Allies in 1936
• Hitler pledged to help Mussolini during the
Spanish Civil War (Rome-Berlin Axis)
• Anti-Comintern Pact:
– Japan became allies to Germany and Italy in
exchange of information about communist groups
• Became known as the Axis powers in 1940
Neutrality Act of 1937
• Allowed countries at war to buy non-military
goods from the U.S.
• The countries had to pay cash for the goods
and had to send ships to pick up the supplies
• U.S. wanted to prevent another Lusitania
Roosevelt’s Ideas
• Wanted to end the Depression
• Didn’t like isolationism (believes it will lead to
• Supported internationalism:
– Trade between nations creates prosperity and
helps to prevent war
• Will send military supplies to China to fight
Japan (non-war effort since Japanese gov’t
didn’t declare war)