Feb. 26, 2016 Warm Up Interwar Notes/Discussion Video Students will be able to describe the impact the League of Nations and the Depression has on the world and the rise of dictators. Every European country is suffering economically. Only the US and Japan came out of the war in better financial shape than before. Why would the US and Japan be better off economically after the war? Neither had been a wartime battlefield. Both expanded their trade during the war. Europe’s dominance in the world had declined and the long brutal fighting had drained the continent’s resources. 1919-1939 League of Nations Born June 28,1919 Goal: collective security and peaceful settlements Disarmament, Diplomacy, Cooperation Outlined in Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points US NEVER JOINS THE LEAGUE What are 2 issues with the League identified in these political cartoons Mandate System What is this describing? Causes of the Great Depression 1. German Reparations – had borrowed money to fund WWI and was forced to pay back damages in GOLD 2. US Dominance of the Global Economy- when US had issues (Stock Market Crash), it affected the rest of the world 3. High Protective Tariffs by the US and other nations Causes of Depression (continued) 4. Excessive expansion of credit - people were able to buy stocks with as little as which is the equivalent to gambling with borrowed money 5. Stock Market Crash of 1929 - Market drops 22% with $30 billion lost - will not bounce back until 1954 Impact of Worldwide Depression HIGH unemployment in all industrialized nations Bank failure and collapse of credit Collapse of prices in world trade Nazi Party’s growing importance in Germany and blaming Jews for collapse German Inflation Benito Mussolini Ultimate portrayal of Fascism Fought in WWI with the Entente when Italy switched sides in 1915 Mussolini tried to save Italy from “Class Warfare” Formed Black Shirts Goal was to maintain order in Italy Interrupted Communist parades with force Government did not interfere with them…why? Mussolini (continued) March on Rome Coup d’etat Overthrew King Victor Emmanuel III in a 3 day march on Rome Wanted to return the glory of Rome Invasion of Ethiopia 1935 Wanted Empire Europe denounced attack Used mustard gas (BANNED 10 years ago) Italy and Ethiopia were both members of the League of Nations Attack in Ethiopia ITALY TROOPS:...500,000 TANKS: ………800 PLANES:……...600 DEATHS: …….500 ETHIOPIA ………800,000 ……………...3 ……………...0 ………275,000 Joseph Stalin “The Man of Steel” and the USSR At this point, the USSR was entrenched in Communism Stalin wanted to rapidly industrialize and modernize Five Year Plan Agricultural quotas (collectivization of farms) Rapid industrialization – state seized everything NO PRIVATE OWNERSHIP Many were overworked and died How was this different from Lenin’s NEP? Stalin’s Reign (How did he stay in power?) Indoctrination of the people through Propaganda (Pravda) Great Purge: Stalin executed his political enemies and many leaders from the Bolshevik Revolution (October/ November Revolution) Adolf Hitler (The Fuhrer) & Germany Hitler: The Role of the Depression Germany had borrowed all of their money to fund WWI Had to pay back reparations in GOLD Germans printed more money which led to HYPERINFLATION Failure of Democracy in the Weimar Republic 1919-1933 Treaty of Versailles claimed that Germany had to have a Democratic government Appointed a beloved WWI hero as President Communists and Nazis both hated the government (and each other) Blamed the Weimar Republic for WWI loss and bad economy Nicknamed “November Criminals” Many attempted to overthrow Weimar- Hitler tried and failed in 1923 National Socialism (Nazism) back for centuries Founded in 1919- roots go Beliefs Extreme nationalism Strong government under Furher (leader) Anti-minority (especially Jews)- Anti-Semetism Anti-Democracy (gives voice to minority) Militarism Hierarchy of race with “Aryans” at the top Anti-communist Hitler gains control of this party in 1921 The Rise of Hitler Beer Hall Putsh (1923) tried to overthrow Weimar Republic Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison (1925-26) Reichstag Fire February 1933 – allowed Hitler to come to power Enabling Act March 1933 Nuremberg laws 1935 (antiSemetic laws) Hideki Tojo and Hirohito Japan 1854: Matthew Perry opens Japan up to the West 1868: Meiji Restoration – Japan gets rid of Tokugawa Shogunate which leads to rapid industrialization and modernization 1930s Militarization Leaders were descendants of the Samurai Universal military conscription Led push for invasions Japan’s Modernization 1931: Japan is in need of natural resources Japan invades China League of Nations does nothing 1940: Japan needs more raw materials – Japan invades Vietnam American Response: cutoff Japan’s supply of scrap metal, oil, and froze assets in US Closed Panama Canal Japan’s Prime Minister resigns and the top general is appointed Hideki Tojo Japanese General Leads attacks of Mongolia and Manchuria Responsible for Pearl Harbor attacks Emperor Hirohito is powerless Reflection How did WWI directly and indirectly cause the issues seen in the interwar period? Out of all of the dictators, who do you feel is the “most evil”? Use some sort of way of determining this and be prepared to defend your POV.