Russia after the WWI
- His own real name was V. I. Ulyanov
- Leader of Bolshevicks – elite group of committed
- He spent most of his life outside of Russia, mostly in
western Europe
- Lenin demonstrated a chilling disregard for the
sufferings of his fellow countrymen and mercilessly
crushed any opposition.
- Organized secret police CHEKA (Chrezvychaynaya
- His corpse was embalmed and placed in a mausoleum
on Moscow's Red Square.
Reforms laws
- separated church and state – wanted to destroy the church
- all religious ceremonies were prohibited,
only civil marriage was allowed
- replaced the Julian calendar with the Gregorian and simplifie
the Cyrilic alphabet
- abolished the titles of nobility
Bolshevicks = Communist
Control the heart of the country,
the industry and Red Army
Leon Trotsky
Control large areas of Russia
Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin,
Piotr Wrangel
The Red won, murdered the tsar family in Jekaterinburg and defeated the Whites
- Major
industries including bank were nacionalised
- private trade prohibit
- NEP (New Economic Policy) – March 1921 “ making 1 step
back to make 2 steps forward”
- meant that state controlled industry, transportation and
foreign trade
- USSR established (Russian Soviet Federated Socialist
Republic) - 1924
- later in 1936 – Stalin constitution of 11 republic, contained
a bill of rights
- one party rule – the Communist
- the CHEKA has turned into GPU, OGPU, NKVD (Narodnyj
komissariat vnutrennich del) and finally KGB (Komitet
gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti)
- His
own real name was Lev Davidovich Bronstein
- member of the 'Menshevik' (majority) faction
- own theory of 'permanent revolution’
- despite of disagreemet with Lenin, ha has joined
- Several significant position with the communist party,
such as foreign commisar, later a war commisar
- One of the crucial figure who kept the bolshevicks regime
- Problems with Stalin after the death of Lenin, thrown out
of the party
because of criticism of Stalin
- Exile in Mexico - murdered
-One of the most powerful and murderous dictators in history
- His own name was J. V Dzhugashvili
- After Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin promoted himself as his
political heir
- By the late 1920s, Stalin was effectively the dictator
of the Soviet Union.
- forced collectivisation of agriculture, the industry grown up but for a huge cost
- Terror of the 1930s, during which Stalin purged the party of 'enemies of the
people', resulting in the execution of thousands and the exile of millions to the
gulag system of slave labour camps.
- Stalin formed alliance against Trotsky with Grigori Zinoviev
(head of the Communist International – Comintern), and Lev Kamenev, party leader in Moscow
- With their help, Stalin moved Trotsky away from the position of war commissar, party and
what more, from the country, where he was murdered
- After that, the alliance of the Left Bolshevicks, as they were called, had finished
- Stalin had join new alliance of Right Bolshevicks with Nikolai Bukharin (editor of Pravda),
Alexei Rykov (chairman after Lenin) and Mikhail Tomsky (head of the trade unions)
- Zimonev and Kamenev were expelled from the CP, Stalin finished the cooperation with the RB
- 1929 – dictatorship of Stalin
-Five Years Plan – plans were designed to end of NEP, eliminate
and create a socialist economy, promote rapid development of
heavy industry
and to collectivize agriculture.
- Encouragement of workers by better benefits – the productivity
increased into 3rd place
in 1940 behind USA and Germany
- Collectivization – 2 types of farms
- kolchozes = collectives farmes
solchozes = stae farms
everybody’s land is common, run by a committee peasant paid by
regular wages
- Huge demonstration against the collectivization – millions of the
rebels had been sent
to the labor camps in Siberia