Soviet Union and War Communism • The Bolsheviks had consolidated power. • Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) organized the Red Army to suppress both internal and foreign opposition. – White Russian opposition could not get properly organized. • The nation was run by Lenin from the top, undemocratically. – The New Economic Plan nationalized the banks, the transport system and heavy industry run by the gov’t – All opposition was repressed. – Peasants were given ability to farm for profitstabilized countryside The Third International • Also called the Comintern, the Third International of the European Socialist Movement was designed by Lenin to promote the Bolshevik style of Socialism in Europe. – 1920-21 conditions were imposed on any socialist party that wanted to join. The Stalin/Trotsky Rivalry • After Lenin’s stroke in 1922 and his subsequent death in 1924, a power vacuum was left. • Leon Trotsky was a Jew within an antiSemitic society and considered more of an intellectual than leader • Stalin was the secretary of the Communist party and had much more loyalty due to making key appointments • 1927—Stalin won support of party; Trotsky flees The Soviet Union Under Stalin • 1928—Five Year Plan implemented—centrally controlled plan for industrial expansion • Farm Collectivization consolidated small farms into Communes – Many peasants opposed, but 12 million were killed • 1933—second Five Year Plan created a boom in Soviet industry while the West was in the depression • 1930s10 million Russians arrested and sent gulags (Siberian labor camps) where eventually died • 1 million were executed as opposition to Stalin Soviet Suspicions and the Search for Security • Since the time of Peter the Great, internal struggles had plagued Russia over her willingness to do what? – Westernize • Continual conflict between pro-Westerners and pro-Slavic roots • Most opposition to Westernization came from Russian fear of invasion from the West Reasons for Stalin’s Suspicion of the West A. Versailles Conference—Russia was excluded and lost territory B. Russian Civil War—the U.S. supported the White Russians against the Bolsheviks during the civil war. U.S. sent military support in hopes of toppling the communist regime C. League of Nations—The Soviet Union was excluded from the League of Nations until 1933; Stalin viewed the West as unconcerned about the political importance of the SU in Europe Reasons for Stalin’s Suspicion of the West D. Locarno Agreement—France and Germany established permanent boundaries after WWI; Stalin saw this as an anti-Soviet bloc E. Invasion of Manchuria—Japan invaded Manchuria; L of N did not respond; possible threat of invasion against SU F. Spanish Civil War—Rise of fascism with little support from U.S. or Britain G. Munich Conference—Britain and France conceded to Hitler parts of Eastern Europe; Stalin not invited; saw fascists as a threat H. Nazi-Soviet Pact—Hitler and Stalin signed nonaggression pact. Stalin needed to buy time to prepare for war.