Life - NOTES

Zoology - Organization of Life
1. All organisms that we know about share general _________________________
 _____________________________ – all living things use ______________________ to grow
and move. Slime molds obtain their energy by ingesting bacteria from the soil.
 ________________________– all living things must also maintain _______________ internal
 _______________________– all living things reproduce and pass on
___________________ information.
 __________________– all living things contain genetic information in DNA which
is located in the ___________________________of each cell and passed on through
chromosomes. This process is called heredity.
 _________________________________– All living things are made
of _________________
These five properties define the core of the study of
3. What is wrong with using movement as a single quality to define life?
 -Movement is not by itself a sure sign of life. Some living things do not ________________
and some nonliving things do move.
4. What are the _________________ properties that define life?
 -Cell organization, _________________, reproduction, ____________________, and heredity
5. How is the fact that living are composed of _________ related to the theme of scale and
 -Living things are made of the same materials as the rest of the universe but contain
cells which are the ____________________________________________
6. All cells are composed of 4 main molecules
7. These molecules are called _____________________________.
8. They are composed mainly of atoms of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and
Oxygen (O).
9. These ____________are joined to form molecules which are then joined to form
10. These macromolecules are _____________________________ bonded.
 They ____________________ electrons
11. All living organisms are composed of 4 major classes of macromolecules:
__________________ ___________________________________________________________
12. The primary component of all macromolecules is _______________________
 Carbon has 4 electrons in its outer energy level, and carbon seeks to fill its energy level
by sharing its electrons with other atoms. Carbon atoms form _______________________
that are the backbone of many different kinds of molecules.
 These long carbon chains are ________________________________________
13. Carbohydrates are ___________________________________
 A carbohydrate is composed of ___________________________________
 Some carbohydrates like table sugar are simple, small molecules called monomers.
 Other carbohydrates (starches like______________________________________) exist as
chains of many subunits (monomers) that form complex polymers
14. The simplest carbohydrate molecules are small sugars or __________________________
(monomers) that taste sweet. The formula for glucose
is C6H12O6
 Carbohydrates are made by linking individual
sugars together to form long chains called
_________________________________ (polymers).
 Polysaccharides are insoluble in water. They can be deposited in specific storage
areas in a cell. The cells ability to store energy in the form of polysaccharides lets
organisms build energy reserves called glycogen.
15. _______________________ is a polysaccharide composed of glucose
subunits (monomers)
 Amylose is the simplest kind of starch – it is a long unbranched chain.
Baking or boiling breaks the long chain into shorter lengths
 Humans consume a lot of starchy carbohydrates such as the seeds of
___________________ __________________________. It makes up about
two-thirds of all calories used by people.
 __________________________store glucose in long branched chains
called glycogen.
16. Many organisms use ____________________________ as structural molecules
such as plants.
 Plants make ________________________ which forms the cell walls of
plants. Most animals cannot break the cellulose down so it is undigested. – we call it
dietary fiber.
 Cows & horses have special ______________________ that do break the cellulose down.
17. ______________________ store energy. They are composed of _______________________
 A lipid is not soluble in water, but it is soluble in oil
 The most important kind of lipid is fat, an energy
_______________________ molecule.
 Fats have more carbon-hydrogen bonds than carbs
and can store more energy! But the body cannot
____________________________ as easily as carbs . So the body can
metabolize ______________________than fats in a given time and
therefore receive more energy from the carbs!
 The backbone of the structure is a ____________ molecule and
the branches are _________
18. A ______________________ is composed of long chains of subunits called amino acids.
 There are 20 different kinds of ___________________________ used by humans. There is an
endless variety of possible proteins the body can produce!
 A typical protein has approximately _________ amino acids linked together in its chain.
19. The chemical properties of a protein depend on its __________________________
 The _______________________of amino acids in the protein is called its primary structure.
 Amino acids interact with neighboring amino acids which causes parts of the chain
to_______ __________________. The coiling and bending determines the protein’s
secondary structure.
 In most proteins, the entire chain folds into a __________________ called
its tertiary structure.
 When 2 or more proteins combine for form clusters, the mix of proteins
forms quaternary structures.
 Proteins often play
______________________ roles in
 Cartilage and tendons
are made of a
__________________________ called collagen.
 Proteins second major role in living organisms is forming
____________________. Enzymes _________________________ the rate at which
chemical reactions occur during metabolism.
 Most _______________________________ necessary for growth, movement
and other body activities would not take place without enzymes.
20. The fourth major class of macromolecules is called ______________________________.
Nucleic Acids contain_______________________________.
 The 2 types of nucleic acids are: _____________ or Deoxyribonucleic acid
and ___________ or Ribonucleic acid
 The subunits of DNA and RNA are called _____________________________
 These nucleotides are grouped into units called genes. Genes encode
information concerning how given organisms will
 __________________ is involved in making working copies of genetic
information. These RNA copies are used in assembling amino acids to
produce certain proteins which produce specific cells.
 A DNA _________________________ consists of two interlocking coil-shaped strands that
resemble a spiral staircase called a _______________________________
 DNA is stored in a compact form called______________________________. It encodes the
sequence of all the cells proteins
 RNA have a variety of shapes depending on their function. RNA assembles or
___________ the proteins from the instructions given by the DNA.
21. Your body is composed of more than 100 trillion cells! Normally you are unaware of them
 Plants and animals are made of a maze of tiny compartments called _______________.
 All _____________________ things are made of cells.
 Most microscopic creatures are _________________________ cells.
 A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all the activities of life.
 Cells have tough outer surface called a_________________________________. It separates
what is in the cell from the outside world.
22. Two types of cells
 There are 2 types of cells
 _______________________________
 ______________________________ cells are very small, very simple.
a. It does NOT have a _________________ – the DNA just floats around inside the cell.
b. Today the only types of prokaryote cells are ___________________________….when
you see the statement all prokaryote cells are bacteria – OR – all bacteria are
prokaryote cells it is TRUE
Eukaryote cells
a. _________________ than prokaryote cells. More complex than prokaryote cells.
These cells ___________________ a nucleus that houses the DNA of the cell.
b. _________________ cells also have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes
23. Eukaryotic cells have _________________________________
 Many ______________________ are found in the cytoplasm. Each is a specialized
structure that performs a ___________________________
 Each organelle separates the different jobs
 __________________________________ grow, move, reproduce during the cell’s life time
 The ______________________of organelles found in specific cells deal with what job the
cell must perform. Muscle cells that contract will have many more mitochondria than
epithelial cells
 This is what makes eukaryotic cells so complex
24. Nucleus – contains ____________________ within chromosomes
25. _________________________________ – everything inside the cell except
the nucleus (jelly)
26. Ribosomes – structures that make ______________________________
27. Cells reproduce – when a cell reaches a certain size organelles help prepare it to
_____________ allowing the organism to grow
28. Cells manufacture & release _________________- energy for the cell is made in 2 organelles
a. ____________________________ -releases energy from food to carry out cell functions
b. ____________________________ -make food in the form of sugars from sunlight, water,
and carbon dioxide in plants. This is photosynthesis
29. Cells maintain ___________________________ – whether it is a single cell or multiple cells a
cell must be able to monitor and adjust _____________________________conditions
30. A cell maintains homeostasis by ________________________ what comes in & goes out;
moving supplies from one part of the cell to another (using the endoplasmic reticulum)
a. ER –______________________proteins & makes lipids. Sends them to the Golgi Body
b. Golgi Body–finishes the products & _____________________ them for shipping to send
out into the cell
31. Nothing gets in or out of the cell except through the ___________________________________.
 The membrane gives the cell its ____________________and holds everything together.
 The cell membrane can not function unless
______________________ continuously enter into the
cell and __________________________ leave the cell.
 This helps __________________________ the internal
environment of the cell
32. Kinds of ___________________________ cells; 2 types – plant cells & animal cells
33. Plant cells have
a. __________ -protects & supports the cell; outside of the cell membrane; made of
b. Vacuoles- sac that _____________________ water, food and waste
c. Chloroplast-use _________________________ to make food for the plant
34. Animal cells have
a. ____________________________ – aid in cell division
b. Vacuoles- much smaller and are called vesticles
35. Cells make _______________________________; Tissues make ____________________________;
_______________________ make organ systems
small, NO
Plant cells
Cell wall,
large vacuole
Animal cells
NO cell wall,
small vacuole
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