Life - NOTES

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Zoology - Organization of Life
Ch 1 NOTES
Name_____________________________
1. All organisms that we know about share general _________________________
 _____________________________ – all living things use ______________________ to grow
and move. Slime molds obtain their energy by ingesting bacteria from the soil.
 ________________________– all living things must also maintain _______________ internal
conditions
 _______________________– all living things reproduce and pass on
___________________ information.
 __________________– all living things contain genetic information in DNA which
is located in the ___________________________of each cell and passed on through
chromosomes. This process is called heredity.
 _________________________________– All living things are made
of _________________
2.
These five properties define the core of the study of
__________________________
3. What is wrong with using movement as a single quality to define life?
 -Movement is not by itself a sure sign of life. Some living things do not ________________
and some nonliving things do move.
4. What are the _________________ properties that define life?
 -Cell organization, _________________, reproduction, ____________________, and heredity
5. How is the fact that living are composed of _________ related to the theme of scale and
structure
 -Living things are made of the same materials as the rest of the universe but contain
cells which are the ____________________________________________
6. All cells are composed of 4 main molecules
7. These molecules are called _____________________________.
8. They are composed mainly of atoms of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and
Oxygen (O).
9. These ____________are joined to form molecules which are then joined to form
macromolecules.
10. These macromolecules are _____________________________ bonded.
 They ____________________ electrons
11. All living organisms are composed of 4 major classes of macromolecules:
__________________ ___________________________________________________________
12. The primary component of all macromolecules is _______________________
 Carbon has 4 electrons in its outer energy level, and carbon seeks to fill its energy level
by sharing its electrons with other atoms. Carbon atoms form _______________________
that are the backbone of many different kinds of molecules.
 These long carbon chains are ________________________________________
13. Carbohydrates are ___________________________________
 A carbohydrate is composed of ___________________________________
 Some carbohydrates like table sugar are simple, small molecules called monomers.
 Other carbohydrates (starches like______________________________________) exist as
chains of many subunits (monomers) that form complex polymers
14. The simplest carbohydrate molecules are small sugars or __________________________
(monomers) that taste sweet. The formula for glucose
is C6H12O6
 Carbohydrates are made by linking individual
sugars together to form long chains called
_________________________________ (polymers).
 Polysaccharides are insoluble in water. They can be deposited in specific storage
areas in a cell. The cells ability to store energy in the form of polysaccharides lets
organisms build energy reserves called glycogen.
15. _______________________ is a polysaccharide composed of glucose
subunits (monomers)
 Amylose is the simplest kind of starch – it is a long unbranched chain.
Baking or boiling breaks the long chain into shorter lengths
 Humans consume a lot of starchy carbohydrates such as the seeds of
___________________ __________________________. It makes up about
two-thirds of all calories used by people.
 __________________________store glucose in long branched chains
called glycogen.
16. Many organisms use ____________________________ as structural molecules
such as plants.
 Plants make ________________________ which forms the cell walls of
plants. Most animals cannot break the cellulose down so it is undigested. – we call it
dietary fiber.
 Cows & horses have special ______________________ that do break the cellulose down.
17. ______________________ store energy. They are composed of _______________________
 A lipid is not soluble in water, but it is soluble in oil
 The most important kind of lipid is fat, an energy
_______________________ molecule.
 Fats have more carbon-hydrogen bonds than carbs
and can store more energy! But the body cannot
____________________________ as easily as carbs . So the body can
metabolize ______________________than fats in a given time and
therefore receive more energy from the carbs!
 The backbone of the structure is a ____________ molecule and
the branches are _________
18. A ______________________ is composed of long chains of subunits called amino acids.
 There are 20 different kinds of ___________________________ used by humans. There is an
endless variety of possible proteins the body can produce!
 A typical protein has approximately _________ amino acids linked together in its chain.
19. The chemical properties of a protein depend on its __________________________
 The _______________________of amino acids in the protein is called its primary structure.
 Amino acids interact with neighboring amino acids which causes parts of the chain
to_______ __________________. The coiling and bending determines the protein’s
secondary structure.
 In most proteins, the entire chain folds into a __________________ called
its tertiary structure.
 When 2 or more proteins combine for form clusters, the mix of proteins
forms quaternary structures.
 Proteins often play
______________________ roles in
organisms.
 Cartilage and tendons
are made of a
__________________________ called collagen.
 Proteins second major role in living organisms is forming
____________________. Enzymes _________________________ the rate at which
chemical reactions occur during metabolism.
 Most _______________________________ necessary for growth, movement
and other body activities would not take place without enzymes.
20. The fourth major class of macromolecules is called ______________________________.
Nucleic Acids contain_______________________________.
 The 2 types of nucleic acids are: _____________ or Deoxyribonucleic acid
and ___________ or Ribonucleic acid
 The subunits of DNA and RNA are called _____________________________
 These nucleotides are grouped into units called genes. Genes encode
information concerning how given organisms will
_________________________________
 __________________ is involved in making working copies of genetic
information. These RNA copies are used in assembling amino acids to
produce certain proteins which produce specific cells.
 A DNA _________________________ consists of two interlocking coil-shaped strands that
resemble a spiral staircase called a _______________________________
 DNA is stored in a compact form called______________________________. It encodes the
sequence of all the cells proteins
 RNA have a variety of shapes depending on their function. RNA assembles or
___________ the proteins from the instructions given by the DNA.
21. Your body is composed of more than 100 trillion cells! Normally you are unaware of them
 Plants and animals are made of a maze of tiny compartments called _______________.
 All _____________________ things are made of cells.
 Most microscopic creatures are _________________________ cells.
 A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all the activities of life.
 Cells have tough outer surface called a_________________________________. It separates
what is in the cell from the outside world.
22. Two types of cells
 There are 2 types of cells
 _______________________________
&
_______________________________
 ______________________________ cells are very small, very simple.
a. It does NOT have a _________________ – the DNA just floats around inside the cell.

b. Today the only types of prokaryote cells are ___________________________….when
you see the statement all prokaryote cells are bacteria – OR – all bacteria are
prokaryote cells it is TRUE
Eukaryote cells
a. _________________ than prokaryote cells. More complex than prokaryote cells.
These cells ___________________ a nucleus that houses the DNA of the cell.
b. _________________ cells also have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes
23. Eukaryotic cells have _________________________________
 Many ______________________ are found in the cytoplasm. Each is a specialized
structure that performs a ___________________________
 Each organelle separates the different jobs
 __________________________________ grow, move, reproduce during the cell’s life time
 The ______________________of organelles found in specific cells deal with what job the
cell must perform. Muscle cells that contract will have many more mitochondria than
epithelial cells
 This is what makes eukaryotic cells so complex
24. Nucleus – contains ____________________ within chromosomes
25. _________________________________ – everything inside the cell except
the nucleus (jelly)
26. Ribosomes – structures that make ______________________________
27. Cells reproduce – when a cell reaches a certain size organelles help prepare it to
_____________ allowing the organism to grow
28. Cells manufacture & release _________________- energy for the cell is made in 2 organelles
a. ____________________________ -releases energy from food to carry out cell functions
b. ____________________________ -make food in the form of sugars from sunlight, water,
and carbon dioxide in plants. This is photosynthesis
29. Cells maintain ___________________________ – whether it is a single cell or multiple cells a
cell must be able to monitor and adjust _____________________________conditions
30. A cell maintains homeostasis by ________________________ what comes in & goes out;
moving supplies from one part of the cell to another (using the endoplasmic reticulum)
a. ER –______________________proteins & makes lipids. Sends them to the Golgi Body
b. Golgi Body–finishes the products & _____________________ them for shipping to send
out into the cell
31. Nothing gets in or out of the cell except through the ___________________________________.
 The membrane gives the cell its ____________________and holds everything together.
 The cell membrane can not function unless
______________________ continuously enter into the
cell and __________________________ leave the cell.
 This helps __________________________ the internal
environment of the cell
32. Kinds of ___________________________ cells; 2 types – plant cells & animal cells
33. Plant cells have
a. __________ -protects & supports the cell; outside of the cell membrane; made of
cellulose
b. Vacuoles- sac that _____________________ water, food and waste
c. Chloroplast-use _________________________ to make food for the plant
34. Animal cells have
a. ____________________________ – aid in cell division
b. Vacuoles- much smaller and are called vesticles
35. Cells make _______________________________; Tissues make ____________________________;
_______________________ make organ systems
TYPES OF CELLS
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
bacteria
Simple,
small, NO
nucleus
Plant cells
Cell wall,
complex,
NUCLEUS,
chloroplast,
large vacuole
Animal cells
NO cell wall,
complex,
NUCLEUS,
centrioles,
small vacuole
(vesticle)
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