Objectives for Unit 1: Cell Structure and Function 1. Describe the difference between, hydrophobic and hydrophilic substance, ionic and covalent bonds, and what makes a solution an electrolyte solution. List the factors that determine if a particle can diffuse through the plasma membrane or not. 2. Describe the chemical characteristics and functions of the following compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, high energy compounds, vitamins, minerals, and water 3. Identify examples of common sugars, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates 4. Describe the role of enzymes in metabolism 5. Describe the properties of cell membranes, including composition, structure, function, and the fluid mosaic model 6. Describe the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 7. Describe the location, structure, and function of each of the following organelles: nucleus, nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), Golgi complex, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, ribosomes, centrioles, cilia, flagella, and microvilli. Be able to identify each structure in a diagram, on a model, or in a micrograph. 8. Describe the processes of passive transport (diffusion, dialysis, filtration, and osmosis), active transport, endocytosis (phagocytosis ans pinocytosis), and exocytosis. 9. Define and explain the terms: hypotonic, hypertonic, iosotonic, hemolysis, crenation, and explain their importance in cells 10. Diagram the cell cycle and explain the key events in each phase: G0 G1, S, G2, and M. 11. Diagram the stages of mitosis and cytokinesis, and describe the events that occur in each stage. 12. Understand the process of DNA replication, including the enzymes required and the chemical composition of DNA 13. Describe how proteins are synthesized including the role of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, ribosomes, amino acids, and the synthetic enzymes. Discuss the nature and the importance of the genetic code. 14. Understand the definition of cancer and the mechanisms that can lead to its formation.