Chapter 2: Measurement and Problem Solving

Chapter 2: Measurement and Problem Solving
 Practice measuring according to
significant figures.
What is the volume of
water in the graduated
cylinder in mL?
How many sigfigs is this?
How many L is this?
Express this number in sci.
Always take the measurement to one decimal place past
the smallest gradation (tic mark)
 Graduated cylinders
▪ Beakers/flasks/bottles /etc. are NOT used for measuring! Measure
the volume of liquids ONLY with a graduated cylinder
 Rulers
When using the electronic balance, record the entire
number on the screen
21.75 mL
2.65 cm
3.53 cm
The bathroom
scale has markings
at every 1 lb.
Report the reading
to the correct
number of digits.
 The unit system for
based on the metric
system, is called the
International System
of Units or SI units.
The standard of length
 The definition of a meter, established by
international agreement in 1983, is the distance
that light travels in vacuum in 1/299,792,458 s.
(The speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s.)
 The standard of mass
 The kilogram is defined as the mass of a block
of metal kept at the International Bureau of
Weights and Measures at Sèvres, France. A
duplicate is kept at the National Institute of
Standards and Technology near Washington,
The kilogram is a measure of mass, which is
different from weight.
 The mass of an object is a measure of the quantity of
matter within it.
 The weight of an object is a measure of the
gravitational pull on that matter.
 Consequently, weight depends on gravity while mass
does not.
 The standard of time
 The second is defined, using an atomic
clock, as the duration of 9,192,631,770
periods of the radiation emitted from a
certain transition in a cesium-133 atom.